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Concept# Hierarchy problem

Summary

In theoretical physics, the hierarchy problem is the problem concerning the large discrepancy between aspects of the weak force and gravity. There is no scientific consensus on why, for example, the weak force is 1024 times stronger than gravity.
Technical definition
A hierarchy problem occurs when the fundamental value of some physical parameter, such as a coupling constant or a mass, in some Lagrangian is vastly different from its effective value, which is the value that gets measured in an experiment. This happens because the effective value is related to the fundamental value by a prescription known as renormalization, which applies corrections to it. Typically the renormalized value of parameters are close to their fundamental values, but in some cases, it appears that there has been a delicate cancellation between the fundamental quantity and the quantum corrections. Hierarchy problems are related to fine-tuning problems and problems of naturalness. Over the past deca

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We present two different approaches to solve the hierarchy problem of the Standard Model and to provide a consistent dynamical mechanism for electroweak symmetry breaking. As a first scenario, we follow the naturalness paradigm as realized in Composite Higgs theories, which conceive the Higgs particle as a bound state of a new strongly interacting sector confining at the TeV scale. We present a minimal implementation of the model and study in detail the phenomenology of vector resonances, which are predicted as states excited from the vacuum by the conserved currents of the new strong dynamics. This analysis allows us to derive constraints on the parameter space of Composite Higgs models from the presently available LHC data and to confront naturalness with experimental results. Motivated by the rising tension between theoretical expectations and the absence of new physics signals at the LHC, we consider as a second possibility the neutral naturalness paradigm and address the hierarchy problem by posing the existence of a mirror copy of the Standard Model, as realized in Twin Higgs theories. This new color-blind sector is the main actor in protecting the Higgs mass from large radiative corrections and is un-discoverable at the LHC, allowing us to push far in the ultraviolet the scale where the Standard Model effective theory breaks down and colored resonances appear. We present an implementation of the Twin Higgs program into a composite model and discuss the requirements for uplifting the symmetry protection mechanism also to the ultraviolet theory. After introducing a consistent Composite Twin Higgs model, we consider the constraints imposed on the scale where colored resonances are expected by the determination of the Higgs mass at three loops order, electroweak precision tests and perturbativity of the ultraviolet-complete model. We show that, although allowing in principle the new physics scale to lie far out of the LHC reach, these constructions need the existence of light colored top partners, with a mass of around 2-4 TeV, to comply with indirect observations. Neutral naturalness models may then evade detection at the LHC, but they can be probed and falsified at future colliders.

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Scale invariance supplemented by the requirement of the absence of new heavy particles may play an important role in addressing the hierarchy problem. We discuss how the Standard Model may become scale invariant at the quantum level above a certain value of the Higgs field value without addition of new degrees of freedom and analyze phenomenological and cosmological consequences of this setup, in particular, possible metastability of the electroweak vacuum and Higgs inflation.

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In theories with a large number N of particle species, black hole physics imposes an upper bound on the mass of the species equal to M-Planck/root N. This bound suggests a novel solution to the hierarchy problem in which there are N approximate to 10(32) gravitationally coupled species, for example 10(32) copies of the standard model. The black hole bound forces them to be at the weak scale, hence providing a stable hierarchy. We present various arguments, that in such theories the effective gravitational cutoff is reduced to Lambda(G)approximate to M-Planck/root N and a new description is needed around this scale. In particular, black holes smaller than Lambda(-1)(G) are already no longer semiclassical. The nature of the completion is model dependent. One natural possibility is that Lambda(G) is the quantum gravity scale. We provide evidence that within this type of scenarios, contrary to the standard intuition, micro-black-holes have a (slowly fading) memory of the species of origin. Consequently, the black holes produced at LHC will predominantly decay into the standard model particles, and negligibly into the other species.

2008