Concept

Geometrical optics

Summary
Geometrical optics, or ray optics, is a model of optics that describes light propagation in terms of rays. The ray in geometrical optics is an abstraction useful for approximating the paths along which light propagates under certain circumstances. The simplifying assumptions of geometrical optics include that light rays:
  • propagate in straight-line paths as they travel in a homogeneous medium
  • bend, and in particular circumstances may split in two, at the interface between two dissimilar media
  • follow curved paths in a medium in which the refractive index changes
  • may be absorbed or reflected.
Geometrical optics does not account for certain optical effects such as diffraction and interference. This simplification is useful in practice; it is an excellent approximation when the wavelength is small compared to the size of structures with which the light interacts. The techniques are particularly useful in describing geometrical aspects of , including optical aberrations. Expla
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