Concept# Decision problem

Summary

In computability theory and computational complexity theory, a decision problem is a computational problem that can be posed as a yes–no question of the input values. An example of a decision problem is deciding by means of an algorithm whether a given natural number is prime. Another is the problem "given two numbers x and y, does x evenly divide y?". The answer is either 'yes' or 'no' depending upon the values of x and y. A method for solving a decision problem, given in the form of an algorithm, is called a decision procedure for that problem. A decision procedure for the decision problem "given two numbers x and y, does x evenly divide y?" would give the steps for determining whether x evenly divides y. One such algorithm is long division. If the remainder is zero the answer is 'yes', otherwise it is 'no'. A decision problem which can be solved by an algorithm is called decidable.
Decision problems typically appear in mathematical questions of decidability, that is, the questio

Official source

This page is automatically generated and may contain information that is not correct, complete, up-to-date, or relevant to your search query. The same applies to every other page on this website. Please make sure to verify the information with EPFL's official sources.

Related publications

Loading

Related people

Loading

Related units

Loading

Related concepts

Loading

Related courses

Loading

Related lectures

Loading

Related publications (72)

Loading

Loading

Loading

Related people (10)

Related concepts (41)

Computational complexity theory

In theoretical computer science and mathematics, computational complexity theory focuses on classifying computational problems according to their resource usage, and relating these classes to each ot

Algorithm

In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm (ˈælɡərɪðəm) is a finite sequence of rigorous instructions, typically used to solve a class of specific problems or to perform a computation. Algo

Computability theory

Computability theory, also known as recursion theory, is a branch of mathematical logic, computer science, and the theory of computation that originated in the 1930s with the study of computable funct

Related units (6)

Related courses (10)

MGT-454: Principles of microeconomics

The course allows students to get familiarized with the basic tools and concepts of modern microeconomic analysis. Based on graphical reasoning and analytical calculus, it constantly links to real economic issues.

EE-311: Fundamentals of machine learning

Ce cours présente une vue générale des techniques d'apprentissage automatique, passant en revue les algorithmes, le formalisme théorique et les protocoles expérimentaux.

CS-119(c): Information, Computation, Communication

L'objectif de ce cours est d'introduire les étudiants à la pensée algorithmique, de les familiariser avec les fondamentaux de l'Informatique et de développer une première compétence en programmation (langage C++).

We present a decision procedure that combines reasoning about datatypes and codatatypes. The dual of the acyclicity rule for datatypes is a uniqueness rule that identifies observationally equal codatatype values, including cyclic values. The procedure decides universal problems and is composable via the Nelson-Oppen method. It has been implemented in CVC4, a state-of-the-art SMT solver. An evaluation based on problems generated from theories developed with Isabelle demonstrates the potential of the procedure.

Daniel Kuhn, Wolfram Wiesemann

Stochastic programming and distributionally robust optimization seek deterministic decisions that optimize a risk measure, possibly in view of the most adverse distribution in an ambiguity set. We investigate under which circumstances such deterministic decisions are strictly outperformed by random decisions which depend on a randomization device producing uniformly distributed samples that are independent of all uncertain factors affecting the decision problem. We find that in the absence of distributional ambiguity, deterministic decisions are optimal if both the risk measure and the feasible region are convex, or alternatively if the risk measure is mixture-quasiconcave. We show that several classes of risk measures, such as mean (semi-)deviation and mean (semi-)moment measures, fail to be mixture-quasiconcave and can therefore give rise to problems in which the decision maker benefits from randomization. Under distributional ambiguity, on the other hand, we show that for any ambiguity averse risk measure there always exists a decision problem (with a nonconvex—e.g., mixed-integer—feasible region) in which a randomized decision strictly dominates all deterministic decisions.

2019Eli Gutin, Daniel Kuhn, Wolfram Wiesemann

In a stochastic interdiction game a proliferator aims to minimize the expected duration of a nuclear weapons development project, and an interdictor endeavors to maximize the project duration by delaying some of the project tasks. We formulate static and dynamic versions of the interdictor's decision problem where the interdiction plan is either precommitted or adapts to new information revealed over time, respectively. The static model gives rise to a stochastic program, whereas the dynamic model is formalized as a multiple optimal stopping problem in continuous time and with decision-dependent information. Under a memoryless probabilistic model for the task durations, we prove that the static model reduces to a mixed-integer linear program, whereas the dynamic model reduces to a finite Markov decision process in discrete time that can be solved via efficient value iteration. We then generalize the dynamic model to account for uncertainty in the outcomes of the interdiction actions. We also discuss a crashing game where the proliferator can use limited resources to expedite tasks so as to counterbalance the interdictor's efforts. The resulting problem can be formulated as a robust Markov decision process.

Related lectures (22)