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Concept# Albert algebra

Summary

In mathematics, an Albert algebra is a 27-dimensional exceptional Jordan algebra. They are named after Abraham Adrian Albert, who pioneered the study of non-associative algebras, usually working over the real numbers. Over the real numbers, there are three such Jordan algebras up to isomorphism. One of them, which was first mentioned by and studied by , is the set of 3×3 self-adjoint matrices over the octonions, equipped with the binary operation
where denotes matrix multiplication. Another is defined the same way, but using split octonions instead of octonions. The final is constructed from the non-split octonions using a different standard involution.
Over any algebraically closed field, there is just one Albert algebra, and its automorphism group G is the simple split group of type F4. (For example, the complexifications of the three Albert algebras over the real numbers are isomorphic Albert algebras over the complex numbers.) Because of this, for a general field F, the Albert algebras are classified by the Galois cohomology group H1(F,G).
The Kantor–Koecher–Tits construction applied to an Albert algebra gives a form of the E7 Lie algebra. The split Albert algebra is used in a construction of a 56-dimensional structurable algebra whose automorphism group has identity component the simply-connected algebraic group of type E6.
The space of cohomological invariants of Albert algebras a field F (of characteristic not 2) with coefficients in Z/2Z is a free module over the cohomology ring of F with a basis 1, f3, f5, of degrees 0, 3, 5. The cohomological invariants with 3-torsion coefficients have a basis 1, g3 of degrees 0, 3. The invariants f3 and g3 are the primary components of the Rost invariant.

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Albert algebra

In mathematics, an Albert algebra is a 27-dimensional exceptional Jordan algebra. They are named after Abraham Adrian Albert, who pioneered the study of non-associative algebras, usually working over the real numbers. Over the real numbers, there are three such Jordan algebras up to isomorphism. One of them, which was first mentioned by and studied by , is the set of 3×3 self-adjoint matrices over the octonions, equipped with the binary operation where denotes matrix multiplication.

Jordan algebra

In abstract algebra, a Jordan algebra is a nonassociative algebra over a field whose multiplication satisfies the following axioms: (commutative law) (). The product of two elements x and y in a Jordan algebra is also denoted x ∘ y, particularly to avoid confusion with the product of a related associative algebra. The axioms imply that a Jordan algebra is power-associative, meaning that is independent of how we parenthesize this expression. They also imply that for all positive integers m and n.

E6 (mathematics)

DISPLAYTITLE:E6 (mathematics) In mathematics, E6 is the name of some closely related Lie groups, linear algebraic groups or their Lie algebras , all of which have dimension 78; the same notation E6 is used for the corresponding root lattice, which has rank 6. The designation E6 comes from the Cartan–Killing classification of the complex simple Lie algebras (see ). This classifies Lie algebras into four infinite series labeled An, Bn, Cn, Dn, and five exceptional cases labeled E6, E7, E8, F4, and G2.

Group Homomorphisms

Explores group homomorphisms, constructing isomorphisms between groups using generators and relations.