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Lecture# Group Homomorphisms

Description

This lecture explores the concept of group homomorphisms, focusing on constructing homomorphisms between groups using generators and relations. The instructor demonstrates how to build an isomorphism between a free group and a dihedral group, emphasizing the importance of choosing the images of the generators. The lecture also delves into the properties of normal subgroups and the process of verifying normality within a group. Through detailed examples and calculations, the instructor illustrates how to determine the order of a group and establish isomorphisms between different groups. The lecture concludes by discussing the construction of groups with specific properties, such as the quaternion group and the octonion algebra, showcasing the application of group theory in various mathematical contexts.

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Related concepts (52)

Instructor

MATH-225: Topology

On étudie des notions de topologie générale: unions et quotients d'espaces topologiques; on approfondit les notions de revêtements et de groupe fondamental,et d'attachements de cellules et on démontre

Dihedral group of order 6

In mathematics, D3 (sometimes alternatively denoted by D6) is the dihedral group of degree 3 and order 6. It equals the symmetric group S3. It is also the smallest non-abelian group. This page illustrates many group concepts using this group as example. The dihedral group D3 is the symmetry group of an equilateral triangle, that is, it is the set of all transformations such as reflection, rotation, and combinations of these, that leave the shape and position of this triangle fixed.

Quaternion group

In group theory, the quaternion group Q8 (sometimes just denoted by Q) is a non-abelian group of order eight, isomorphic to the eight-element subset of the quaternions under multiplication. It is given by the group presentation where e is the identity element and commutes with the other elements of the group. Another presentation of Q8 is The quaternion group Q8 has the same order as the dihedral group D4, but a different structure, as shown by their Cayley and cycle graphs: In the diagrams for D4, the group elements are marked with their action on a letter F in the defining representation R2.

Examples of groups

Some elementary examples of groups in mathematics are given on Group (mathematics). Further examples are listed here. Dihedral group of order 6 Consider three colored blocks (red, green, and blue), initially placed in the order RGB. Let a be the operation "swap the first block and the second block", and b be the operation "swap the second block and the third block". We can write xy for the operation "first do y, then do x"; so that ab is the operation RGB → RBG → BRG, which could be described as "move the first two blocks one position to the right and put the third block into the first position".

Dicyclic group

In group theory, a dicyclic group (notation Dicn or Q4n, ) is a particular kind of non-abelian group of order 4n (n > 1). It is an extension of the cyclic group of order 2 by a cyclic group of order 2n, giving the name di-cyclic. In the notation of exact sequences of groups, this extension can be expressed as: More generally, given any finite abelian group with an order-2 element, one can define a dicyclic group.

Dihedral group

In mathematics, a dihedral group is the group of symmetries of a regular polygon, which includes rotations and reflections. Dihedral groups are among the simplest examples of finite groups, and they play an important role in group theory, geometry, and chemistry. The notation for the dihedral group differs in geometry and abstract algebra. In geometry, D_n or Dih_n refers to the symmetries of the n-gon, a group of order 2n. In abstract algebra, D_2n refers to this same dihedral group.

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