Concept# Equation

Summary

In mathematics, an equation is a mathematical formula that expresses the equality of two expressions, by connecting them with the equals sign . The word equation and its cognates in other languages may have subtly different meanings; for example, in French an équation is defined as containing one or more variables, while in English, any well-formed formula consisting of two expressions related with an equals sign is an equation.
Solving an equation containing variables consists of determining which values of the variables make the equality true. The variables for which the equation has to be solved are also called unknowns, and the values of the unknowns that satisfy the equality are called solutions of the equation. There are two kinds of equations: identities and conditional equations. An identity is true for all values of the variables. A conditional equation is only true for particular values of the variables.
The "=" symbol, which appears in every equation, was invented in 155

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We develop the necessary tools, including a notion of logarithmic derivative for curves in homogeneous spaces, for deriving a general class of equations including Euler-Poincar, equations on Lie groups and homogeneous spaces. Orbit invariants play an important role in this context and we use these invariants to prove global existence and uniqueness results for a class of PDE. This class includes Euler-Poincar, equations that have not yet been considered in the literature as well as integrable equations like Camassa-Holm, Degasperis-Procesi, mu CH and mu DP equations, and the geodesic equations with respect to right-invariant Sobolev metrics on the group of diffeomorphisms of the circle.

We study a family of equations defined on the space of tensor densities of weight lambda on the circle and introduce two integrable PDE. One of the equations turns out to be closely related to the inviscid Burgers equation while the other has not been identified in any form before. We present their Lax pair formulations and describe their bihamiltonian structures. We prove local wellposedness of the corresponding Cauchy problem and include results on blow-up as well as global existence of solutions. Moreover, we construct "peakon" and "multi-peakon" solutions for all lambda not equal 0, 1, and "shock-peakons" for lambda = 3. We argue that there is a natural geometric framework for these equations that includes other well-known integrable equations and which is based on V. Arnold's approach to Euler equations on Lie groups.

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