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Lecture# Diagonalization of Symmetric Matrices

Description

This lecture covers the diagonalization of symmetric matrices, focusing on the theorem stating that for symmetric matrices, distinct eigenspaces associated with distinct eigenvalues are orthogonal. The instructor explains the process of finding eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and ensuring orthogonality between different eigenspaces. The lecture also delves into the Spectral Theorem, which asserts that a symmetric matrix is always diagonalizable. Additionally, the concept of Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is introduced, emphasizing the importance of orthogonal matrices in reducing computational errors. Through examples, the lecture illustrates scenarios where matrices may not be diagonalizable, highlighting the significance of SVD in such cases.

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Related concepts (70)

MATH-111(c): Linear Algebra

L'objectif du cours est d'introduire les notions de base de l'algèbre linéaire et ses applications.

Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

In linear algebra, an eigenvector (ˈaɪgənˌvɛktər) or characteristic vector of a linear transformation is a nonzero vector that changes at most by a constant factor when that linear transformation is applied to it. The corresponding eigenvalue, often represented by , is the multiplying factor. Geometrically, a transformation matrix rotates, stretches, or shears the vectors it acts upon. The eigenvectors for a linear transformation matrix are the set of vectors that are only stretched, with no rotation or shear.

Orthogonal matrix

In linear algebra, an orthogonal matrix, or orthonormal matrix, is a real square matrix whose columns and rows are orthonormal vectors. One way to express this is where QT is the transpose of Q and I is the identity matrix. This leads to the equivalent characterization: a matrix Q is orthogonal if its transpose is equal to its inverse: where Q−1 is the inverse of Q. An orthogonal matrix Q is necessarily invertible (with inverse Q−1 = QT), unitary (Q−1 = Q∗), where Q∗ is the Hermitian adjoint (conjugate transpose) of Q, and therefore normal (Q∗Q = QQ∗) over the real numbers.

Skew-symmetric matrix

In mathematics, particularly in linear algebra, a skew-symmetric (or antisymmetric or antimetric) matrix is a square matrix whose transpose equals its negative. That is, it satisfies the condition In terms of the entries of the matrix, if denotes the entry in the -th row and -th column, then the skew-symmetric condition is equivalent to The matrix is skew-symmetric because Throughout, we assume that all matrix entries belong to a field whose characteristic is not equal to 2.

Orthogonal polynomials

In mathematics, an orthogonal polynomial sequence is a family of polynomials such that any two different polynomials in the sequence are orthogonal to each other under some inner product. The most widely used orthogonal polynomials are the classical orthogonal polynomials, consisting of the Hermite polynomials, the Laguerre polynomials and the Jacobi polynomials. The Gegenbauer polynomials form the most important class of Jacobi polynomials; they include the Chebyshev polynomials, and the Legendre polynomials as special cases.

Generalized eigenvector

In linear algebra, a generalized eigenvector of an matrix is a vector which satisfies certain criteria which are more relaxed than those for an (ordinary) eigenvector. Let be an -dimensional vector space and let be the matrix representation of a linear map from to with respect to some ordered basis. There may not always exist a full set of linearly independent eigenvectors of that form a complete basis for . That is, the matrix may not be diagonalizable.

Related lectures (487)

Matrix Diagonalization: Spectral Theorem

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Covers the decomposition of symmetric matrices into eigenvalues and eigenvectors.

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Covers the theoretical foundations of Singular Value Decomposition, explaining the decomposition of a matrix into singular values and vectors.

Diagonalization of Symmetric MatricesMATH-111(e): Linear Algebra

Covers the diagonalization of symmetric matrices and the spectral theorem for symmetric matrices.

Symmetric Matrices: Diagonalization

Explores symmetric matrices, their diagonalization, and properties like eigenvalues and eigenvectors.