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Lecture# Group Homomorphisms: Kernels, Images, and Normal Subgroups

Description

This lecture covers group homomorphisms, focusing on the concepts of kernels and images, as well as normal subgroups. The dihedral group D_n is introduced as an example, along with discussions on the elliptic curve group and the Lenstra factorization algorithm. The presentation progresses through examples of subgroups in D_n, exploring the structure of cosets with respect to normal subgroups and the formation of quotient groups.

Official source

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Instructor

In course

MATH-310: Algebra

This is an introduction to modern algebra: groups, rings and fields.

Related concepts (236)

Normal subgroup

In abstract algebra, a normal subgroup (also known as an invariant subgroup or self-conjugate subgroup) is a subgroup that is invariant under conjugation by members of the group of which it is a part. In other words, a subgroup of the group is normal in if and only if for all and The usual notation for this relation is Normal subgroups are important because they (and only they) can be used to construct quotient groups of the given group.

Subgroup

In group theory, a branch of mathematics, given a group G under a binary operation ∗, a subset H of G is called a subgroup of G if H also forms a group under the operation ∗. More precisely, H is a subgroup of G if the restriction of ∗ to H × H is a group operation on H. This is often denoted H ≤ G, read as "H is a subgroup of G". The trivial subgroup of any group is the subgroup {e} consisting of just the identity element. A proper subgroup of a group G is a subgroup H which is a proper subset of G (that is, H ≠ G).

Set (mathematics)

A set is the mathematical model for a collection of different things; a set contains elements or members, which can be mathematical objects of any kind: numbers, symbols, points in space, lines, other geometrical shapes, variables, or even other sets. The set with no element is the empty set; a set with a single element is a singleton. A set may have a finite number of elements or be an infinite set. Two sets are equal if they have precisely the same elements. Sets are ubiquitous in modern mathematics.

Characteristic subgroup

In mathematics, particularly in the area of abstract algebra known as group theory, a characteristic subgroup is a subgroup that is mapped to itself by every automorphism of the parent group. Because every conjugation map is an inner automorphism, every characteristic subgroup is normal; though the converse is not guaranteed. Examples of characteristic subgroups include the commutator subgroup and the center of a group. A subgroup H of a group G is called a characteristic subgroup if for every automorphism φ of G, one has φ(H) ≤ H; then write H char G.

Set theory

Set theory is the branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which can be informally described as collections of objects. Although objects of any kind can be collected into a set, set theory, as a branch of mathematics, is mostly concerned with those that are relevant to mathematics as a whole. The modern study of set theory was initiated by the German mathematicians Richard Dedekind and Georg Cantor in the 1870s. In particular, Georg Cantor is commonly considered the founder of set theory.

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