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Lecture# Linear Systems: Operations and Solutions

Description

This lecture focuses on linear systems of equations, discussing operations such as row operations and their impact on the solutions. The instructor demonstrates how to systematically transform a system into triangular and diagonal forms, leading to unique or parametrized solutions. Through examples, the lecture illustrates the process of solving systems with different numbers of equations and variables, emphasizing the importance of understanding the geometric interpretation of solutions. The concept of free and dependent variables is introduced, along with the notion of equivalent systems. The lecture concludes by exploring the intersection of planes in 3D space and the implications for system solutions.

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In course

Instructor

MATH-111(e): Linear Algebra

L'objectif du cours est d'introduire les notions de base de l'algèbre linéaire et ses applications.

Related concepts (102)

Row echelon form

In linear algebra, a matrix is in echelon form if it has the shape resulting from a Gaussian elimination. A matrix being in row echelon form means that Gaussian elimination has operated on the rows, and column echelon form means that Gaussian elimination has operated on the columns. In other words, a matrix is in column echelon form if its transpose is in row echelon form. Therefore, only row echelon forms are considered in the remainder of this article. The similar properties of column echelon form are easily deduced by transposing all the matrices.

Jordan normal form

In linear algebra, a Jordan normal form, also known as a Jordan canonical form (JCF), is an upper triangular matrix of a particular form called a Jordan matrix representing a linear operator on a finite-dimensional vector space with respect to some basis. Such a matrix has each non-zero off-diagonal entry equal to 1, immediately above the main diagonal (on the superdiagonal), and with identical diagonal entries to the left and below them. Let V be a vector space over a field K.

Parametric equation

In mathematics, a parametric equation defines a group of quantities as functions of one or more independent variables called parameters. Parametric equations are commonly used to express the coordinates of the points that make up a geometric object such as a curve or surface, called parametric curve and parametric surface, respectively. In such cases, the equations are collectively called a parametric representation, or parametric system, or parameterization (alternatively spelled as parametrisation) of the object.

Quadratic form

In mathematics, a quadratic form is a polynomial with terms all of degree two ("form" is another name for a homogeneous polynomial). For example, is a quadratic form in the variables x and y. The coefficients usually belong to a fixed field K, such as the real or complex numbers, and one speaks of a quadratic form over K. If , and the quadratic form equals zero only when all variables are simultaneously zero, then it is a definite quadratic form; otherwise it is an isotropic quadratic form.

Row and column spaces

In linear algebra, the column space (also called the range or ) of a matrix A is the span (set of all possible linear combinations) of its column vectors. The column space of a matrix is the or range of the corresponding matrix transformation. Let be a field. The column space of an m × n matrix with components from is a linear subspace of the m-space . The dimension of the column space is called the rank of the matrix and is at most min(m, n). A definition for matrices over a ring is also possible.

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