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Lecture# Electrostatics: Gauss's Law

Description

This lecture covers electrostatics, including charge separation, electric force, electric field calculations, conservative Coulomb force, electric potential, and Gauss's law. It explains the application of Gauss's law, electrostatic potential in an ion crystal, and conductor behavior. The differential and integral forms of Gauss's law are discussed, along with the divergence theorem and the concept of flux evaluation. The lecture also delves into the geometrical interpretation of divergence and the simplification of electric field calculations using Gauss's law under symmetry conditions.

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The electric potential (also called the electric field potential, potential drop, the electrostatic potential) is defined as the amount of work energy needed per unit of electric charge to move this charge from a reference point to the specific point in an electric field. More precisely, it is the energy per unit charge for a test charge that is so small that the disturbance of the field under consideration is negligible.

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Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. Electric charge can be positive or negative (commonly carried by protons and electrons respectively, by convention). Like charges repel each other and unlike charges attract each other. An object with no net charge is referred to as electrically neutral. Early knowledge of how charged substances interact is now called classical electrodynamics, and is still accurate for problems that do not require consideration of quantum effects.

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A Gaussian surface is a closed surface in three-dimensional space through which the flux of a vector field is calculated; usually the gravitational field, electric field, or magnetic field. It is an arbitrary closed surface S = ∂V (the boundary of a 3-dimensional region V) used in conjunction with Gauss's law for the corresponding field (Gauss's law, Gauss's law for magnetism, or Gauss's law for gravity) by performing a surface integral, in order to calculate the total amount of the source quantity enclosed; e.

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