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Lecture# Essential Adjoints: Spectral Decomposition and Symmetric Operators

Description

This lecture discusses the importance of closed operators in achieving a spectral decomposition of self-adjoint operators, focusing on the case of multiplication operators on Hilbert spaces. It covers the relationship between closed operators and their adjoints, proving key propositions and lemmas. The lecture also introduces the concept of essential self-adjointness, highlighting conditions for an operator to be essentially self-adjoint. The Von Neumann theorem is presented, establishing criteria for an operator to be self-adjoint. Examples of symmetric operators, such as T₁ and -A₁, are analyzed to illustrate the theory discussed. The lecture concludes by demonstrating the symmetry and properties of these operators.

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Heart

The heart is a muscular organ in most animals. This organ pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system. The pumped blood carries oxygen and nutrients to the body, while carrying metabolic waste such as carbon dioxide to the lungs. In humans, the heart is approximately the size of a closed fist and is located between the lungs, in the middle compartment of the chest, called the mediastinum. In humans, other mammals, and birds, the heart is divided into four chambers: upper left and right atria and lower left and right ventricles.

Self-adjoint operator

In mathematics, a self-adjoint operator on an infinite-dimensional complex vector space V with inner product (equivalently, a Hermitian operator in the finite-dimensional case) is a linear map A (from V to itself) that is its own adjoint. If V is finite-dimensional with a given orthonormal basis, this is equivalent to the condition that the matrix of A is a Hermitian matrix, i.e., equal to its conjugate transpose A^∗. By the finite-dimensional spectral theorem, V has an orthonormal basis such that the matrix of A relative to this basis is a diagonal matrix with entries in the real numbers.

Heart failure

Heart failure (HF), also known as congestive heart failure (CHF), is a syndrome, a group of signs and symptoms, caused by an impairment of the heart's blood pumping function. Symptoms typically include shortness of breath, excessive fatigue, and leg swelling. The shortness of breath may occur with exertion or while lying down, and may wake people up during the night. Chest pain, including angina, is not usually caused by heart failure, but may occur if the heart failure was caused by a heart attack.

Heart rate

Heart rate (or pulse rate) is the frequency of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (beats per minute, or bpm). The heart rate can vary according to the body's physical needs, including the need to absorb oxygen and excrete carbon dioxide, but is also modulated by numerous factors, including (but not limited to) genetics, physical fitness, stress or psychological status, diet, drugs, hormonal status, environment, and disease/illness as well as the interaction between and among these factors.

Unbounded operator

In mathematics, more specifically functional analysis and operator theory, the notion of unbounded operator provides an abstract framework for dealing with differential operators, unbounded observables in quantum mechanics, and other cases. The term "unbounded operator" can be misleading, since "unbounded" should sometimes be understood as "not necessarily bounded"; "operator" should be understood as "linear operator" (as in the case of "bounded operator"); the domain of the operator is a linear subspace, not necessarily the whole space; this linear subspace is not necessarily closed; often (but not always) it is assumed to be dense; in the special case of a bounded operator, still, the domain is usually assumed to be the whole space.