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Lecture# Symmetry in Modern Space

Description

This lecture covers the classification of symmetries in 3D space, including reflections relative to a single plane and reflections relative to an infinite number of intersecting planes. It also discusses the determination of useful symmetries in CAD software, the creation of mirror pieces, and equivalent displacements. The instructor emphasizes the importance of users determining the symmetries of objects, as CAD software cannot do this efficiently. The lecture delves into the complexities of determining symmetries in 3D objects and the practical applications of symmetries in CAD. It concludes with a detailed explanation of the modern definition of symmetry in space.

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Related concepts (478)

Average

In ordinary language, an average is a single number taken as representative of a list of numbers, usually the sum of the numbers divided by how many numbers are in the list (the arithmetic mean). For example, the average of the numbers 2, 3, 4, 7, and 9 (summing to 25) is 5. Depending on the context, an average might be another statistic such as the median, or mode. For example, the average personal income is often given as the median—the number below which are 50% of personal incomes and above which are 50% of personal incomes—because the mean would be higher by including personal incomes from a few billionaires.

Diophantine approximation

In number theory, the study of Diophantine approximation deals with the approximation of real numbers by rational numbers. It is named after Diophantus of Alexandria. The first problem was to know how well a real number can be approximated by rational numbers. For this problem, a rational number a/b is a "good" approximation of a real number α if the absolute value of the difference between a/b and α may not decrease if a/b is replaced by another rational number with a smaller denominator.

Geometric mean

In mathematics, the geometric mean is a mean or average which indicates a central tendency of a finite set of real numbers by using the product of their values (as opposed to the arithmetic mean which uses their sum). The geometric mean is defined as the nth root of the product of n numbers, i.e., for a set of numbers a1, a2, ..., an, the geometric mean is defined as or, equivalently, as the arithmetic mean in logscale: Most commonly the numbers are restricted to being non-negative, to avoid complications related to negative numbers not having real roots, and frequently they are restricted to being positive, to enable the use of logarithms.

Harmonic mean

In mathematics, the harmonic mean is one of several kinds of average, and in particular, one of the Pythagorean means. It is sometimes appropriate for situations when the average rate is desired. The harmonic mean can be expressed as the reciprocal of the arithmetic mean of the reciprocals of the given set of observations.

Dirichlet's approximation theorem

In number theory, Dirichlet's theorem on Diophantine approximation, also called Dirichlet's approximation theorem, states that for any real numbers and , with , there exist integers and such that and Here represents the integer part of . This is a fundamental result in Diophantine approximation, showing that any real number has a sequence of good rational approximations: in fact an immediate consequence is that for a given irrational α, the inequality is satisfied by infinitely many integers p and q.

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