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Lecture# Isometries & Orientation in Modern Geometry

Description

This lecture covers the fundamental concept of true angle magnitude in space geometry, including the definition of the true angle between two half planes, the sign of the angle, and the rotation direction. It also explores the construction of reflections through inversion, axial reflections, and plane reflections, as well as the generation of isometries through composition of reflections. The lecture delves into the structure theorem of isometries, configurations of two and three planes, and the concept of rotor-reflection. Practical applications in computer-aided design (CAD) are discussed, focusing on reflections in assembly documents and the determination of symmetries in 3D objects.

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Related concepts (555)

Specular reflection

Specular reflection, or regular reflection, is the mirror-like reflection of waves, such as light, from a surface. The law of reflection states that a reflected ray of light emerges from the reflecting surface at the same angle to the surface normal as the incident ray, but on the opposing side of the surface normal in the plane formed by the incident and reflected rays. This behavior was first described by Hero of Alexandria (AD c. 10–70). Later, Alhazen gave a complete statement of the law of reflection.

Reflection symmetry

In mathematics, reflection symmetry, line symmetry, mirror symmetry, or mirror-image symmetry is symmetry with respect to a reflection. That is, a figure which does not change upon undergoing a reflection has reflectional symmetry. In 2D there is a line/axis of symmetry, in 3D a plane of symmetry. An object or figure which is indistinguishable from its transformed image is called . In conclusion, a line of symmetry splits the shape in half and those halves should be identical.

Reflection (physics)

Reflection is the change in direction of a wavefront at an interface between two different media so that the wavefront returns into the medium from which it originated. Common examples include the reflection of light, sound and water waves. The law of reflection says that for specular reflection (for example at a mirror) the angle at which the wave is incident on the surface equals the angle at which it is reflected. In acoustics, reflection causes echoes and is used in sonar. In geology, it is important in the study of seismic waves.

Projective plane

In mathematics, a projective plane is a geometric structure that extends the concept of a plane. In the ordinary Euclidean plane, two lines typically intersect at a single point, but there are some pairs of lines (namely, parallel lines) that do not intersect. A projective plane can be thought of as an ordinary plane equipped with additional "points at infinity" where parallel lines intersect. Thus any two distinct lines in a projective plane intersect at exactly one point.

Total internal reflection

In physics, total internal reflection (TIR) is the phenomenon in which waves arriving at the interface (boundary) from one medium to another (e.g., from water to air) are not refracted into the second ("external") medium, but completely reflected back into the first ("internal") medium. It occurs when the second medium has a higher wave speed (i.e., lower refractive index) than the first, and the waves are incident at a sufficiently oblique angle on the interface.

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