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Lecture# Diagonalization in Symmetric Matrices

Description

This lecture covers the process of diagonalizing symmetric matrices in an orthonormal basis, starting with finding eigenvalues and eigenvectors, ensuring orthogonality, and normalizing the vectors. The instructor explains the advantages of diagonalizing symmetric matrices, emphasizing the importance of orthogonality and the ease of transposition compared to inversion. The lecture delves into the conditions for diagonalizability, highlighting the significance of symmetric matrices in this process. The concept of orthonormal bases is explored, showcasing the benefits of having orthogonal vectors and the implications for matrix operations. The lecture concludes with a detailed explanation of the properties and applications of diagonalization in symmetric matrices.

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Related concepts (138)

MATH-111(c): Linear Algebra

L'objectif du cours est d'introduire les notions de base de l'algèbre linéaire et ses applications.

Diagonalizable matrix

In linear algebra, a square matrix is called diagonalizable or non-defective if it is similar to a diagonal matrix, i.e., if there exists an invertible matrix and a diagonal matrix such that , or equivalently . (Such , are not unique.) For a finite-dimensional vector space , a linear map is called diagonalizable if there exists an ordered basis of consisting of eigenvectors of .

Eigendecomposition of a matrix

In linear algebra, eigendecomposition is the factorization of a matrix into a canonical form, whereby the matrix is represented in terms of its eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Only diagonalizable matrices can be factorized in this way. When the matrix being factorized is a normal or real symmetric matrix, the decomposition is called "spectral decomposition", derived from the spectral theorem. Eigenvalue, eigenvector and eigenspace A (nonzero) vector v of dimension N is an eigenvector of a square N × N matrix A if it satisfies a linear equation of the form for some scalar λ.

Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

In linear algebra, an eigenvector (ˈaɪgənˌvɛktər) or characteristic vector of a linear transformation is a nonzero vector that changes at most by a constant factor when that linear transformation is applied to it. The corresponding eigenvalue, often represented by , is the multiplying factor. Geometrically, a transformation matrix rotates, stretches, or shears the vectors it acts upon. The eigenvectors for a linear transformation matrix are the set of vectors that are only stretched, with no rotation or shear.

Eigenvalue algorithm

In numerical analysis, one of the most important problems is designing efficient and stable algorithms for finding the eigenvalues of a matrix. These eigenvalue algorithms may also find eigenvectors. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors and Generalized eigenvector Given an n × n square matrix A of real or complex numbers, an eigenvalue λ and its associated generalized eigenvector v are a pair obeying the relation where v is a nonzero n × 1 column vector, I is the n × n identity matrix, k is a positive integer, and both λ and v are allowed to be complex even when A is real.

Diagonal matrix

In linear algebra, a diagonal matrix is a matrix in which the entries outside the main diagonal are all zero; the term usually refers to square matrices. Elements of the main diagonal can either be zero or nonzero. An example of a 2×2 diagonal matrix is , while an example of a 3×3 diagonal matrix is. An identity matrix of any size, or any multiple of it (a scalar matrix), is a diagonal matrix. A diagonal matrix is sometimes called a scaling matrix, since matrix multiplication with it results in changing scale (size).

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