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Publication# Factoring

Abstract

Factoring, finding a non-trivial factorization of a composite positive integer, is believed to be a hard problem. How hard we think it is, however, changes almost on a daily basis. Predicting how hard factoring will be in the future, an important issue for cryptographic applications of composite numbers, is therefore a challenging task. The author presents a brief survey of general purpose integer factoring algorithms and their implementations

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Related publications (36)

Related concepts (32)

Integer factorization

In number theory, integer factorization is the decomposition, when possible, of a positive integer into a product of smaller integers. If the factors are further restricted to be prime numbers, the process is called prime factorization, and includes the test whether the given integer is prime (in this case, one has a "product" of a single factor). When the numbers are sufficiently large, no efficient non-quantum integer factorization algorithm is known. However, it has not been proven that such an algorithm does not exist.

Composite number

A composite number is a positive integer that can be formed by multiplying two smaller positive integers. Equivalently, it is a positive integer that has at least one divisor other than 1 and itself. Every positive integer is composite, prime, or the unit 1, so the composite numbers are exactly the numbers that are not prime and not a unit. For example, the integer 14 is a composite number because it is the product of the two smaller integers 2 × 7. Likewise, the integers 2 and 3 are not composite numbers because each of them can only be divided by one and itself.

Divisor

In mathematics, a divisor of an integer , also called a factor of , is an integer that may be multiplied by some integer to produce . In this case, one also says that is a multiple of An integer is divisible or evenly divisible by another integer if is a divisor of ; this implies dividing by leaves no remainder. An integer n is divisible by a nonzero integer m if there exists an integer k such that . This is written as Other ways of saying the same thing are that m divides n, m is a divisor of n, m is a factor of n, and n is a multiple of m.

Ontological neighbourhood

Kim-Manuel Klein, Klaus Jansen, Alexandra Anna Lassota

We consider fundamental algorithmic number theoretic problems and their relation to a class of block structured Integer Linear Programs (ILPs) called 2-stage stochastic. A 2-stage stochastic ILP is an integer program of the form min{c(T)x vertical bar Ax = ...

Post-quantum cryptography is a branch of cryptography which deals with cryptographic algorithms whose hardness assumptions are not based on problems known to be solvable by a quantum computer, such as the RSA problem, factoring or discrete logarithms.This ...

Let $\Omega(n)$ denote the number of prime factors of $n$. We show that for any bounded $f\colon\mathbb{N}\to\mathbb{C}$ one has [ \frac{1}{N}\sum_{n=1}^N, f(\Omega(n)+1)=\frac{1}{N}\sum_{n=1}^N, f(\Omega(n))+\mathrm{o}_{N\to\infty}(1). ] This yields a ...

2021