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Publication# Multi-level preconditioner for solving the Navier-Stokes equations in hemodynamics applications

Abstract

We present a multi-level algorithm to approximate the inverse of the fluid block in a Navier-Stokes saddle-point matrix where the coarse level is defined as a restriction of the degrees of freedom to those of lower order finite elements. A one-level scheme involving P1 and P2 finite elements is studied in details and several transfer operators are compared by means of two reference problems. Numerical results show that restriction and prolongation operators based on L2 projection lead to faster GMRES convergence of the fluid part, for all the examined combinations of mesh size, time step and Reynolds number.

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Engineers rely on efficient simulations that provide them with reliable data in order to make proper engineering design decisions. The purpose of this thesis is to design adaptive numerical methods for multiscale problems in this spirit. We consider elliptic homogenization problems discretized by the finite element heterogeneous multiscale method (FE-HMM). Unlike standard (single-scale) finite element methods, our multiscale discretization scheme relies on coupled macro and micro finite elements. The framework of the HMM allows to design an algorithm that follows the classical finite element structure on the macro level. The fine scales of the multiscale problems are taken into account by replacing the element-wise numerical integration over unknown macroscopic data by a numerical integration over suitably averaged micro solutions. These micro solutions are obtained from micro FE problems on sampling domains within the macro elements. This thesis is divided into two parts. In the first part, we discuss a short and versatile FE implementation of the multiscale algorithm. The implementation is flexible, easy to use and to modify and can handle simplicial or quadrilateral FE and various macro-micro coupling conditions for the constrained micro problems. The implementation of time-dependent problems is also discussed. Numerical examples including three dimensional problems are presented and demonstrate the efficiency and the versatility of the computational strategy. In the second part (the main part of this thesis), we present an a posteriori error analysis for the FE-HMM. The a posteriori analysis enables us to estimate the accuracy of a numerical solution (and therefore its reliability) and further it allows for the design of adaptive numerical methods, which are the most efficient. The crucial component for the design of an adaptive multiscale method is the introduction of appropriate error indicators. As the error indicators depend on macroscopic data (such as the macroscopic diffusion tensor) that are not readily available, we construct error indicators that only depend on the available macro and micro FE solutions, available from previous computations. We provide a posteriori estimates for the upper and lower bound in the energy norm. The corresponding macroscopic mesh refinement strategy is therefore both reliable and efficient. The microscopic mesh is refined simultaneously and – under appropriate assumptions – optimally with the macroscopic mesh. This means that the strategy reduces the macro and micro error at the same rate. In the case of a uniformly oscillating tensor and exact micro computations, the standard a posteriori error estimates for the FEM applied to the homogenized problem are recovered. Numerical experiments confirm the efficiency and reliability of the adaptive multiscale method and demonstrate the optimality of the chosen macro-micro coupling. We extend the adaptive FE-HMM to higher order FE. We further derive a posteriori estimates for the error in quantities of interest that are needed to make certain design decisions; the quantity of interest is represented by a linear functional. We derive and analyze a multiscale counterpart to the classical dual-weighted residual method and design a corresponding goal-oriented adaptive multiscale method. The efficiency of the method is shown in numerical experiments.

The goal of this project is to numerically solve the Navier-Stokes equations by using different numerical methods with particular emphasis on solving the problem of the flow past a square cylinder. In particular, we use the finite element method based on P2/P1 elements for the velocity and pressure fields for the spatial approximation, while the backward Euler method (with semi-implicit treatment of the nonlinear term) for the time discretization. We firstly test the numerical schemes on a benchmark problem with known exact solution. Then, we discuss in detail the advantages, in terms of computational costs, in using the algebraic Chorin-Temam method with additional implementation improvements. We finally investigate the problem of the two-dimensional flow past a square cylinder, focusing our attention on the range 0.1-300 for the Reynolds number (Re). We describe the two different regimes associated to the steady and the unsteady flows and we remark as the latter is in fact due to a Hopf bifurcation of the system. We also discuss the relation between the Strouhal and Reynolds numbers concluding that the Strouhal number attains its maximum value in the range 169-170 for the Reynolds number. In particular, a cubic model is proposed, showing very good matching with observed data and a better fitting than other models available in literature.

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