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Publication# Finite metacyclic groups as active sums of cyclic subgroups

Abstract

The notion of active sum provides an analogue for groups of what the direct sum is for abelian groups. One natural question then is which groups are the active sum of a family of cyclic subgroups. Many groups have been found to give a positive answer to this question, while the case of finite metacyclic groups remained unknown. In this note we show that every finite metacyclic group can be recovered as the active sum of a discrete family of cyclic subgroups.

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Cyclic group

In group theory, a branch of abstract algebra in pure mathematics, a cyclic group or monogenous group is a group, denoted Cn, that is generated by a single element. That is, it is a set of invertible

Direct sum

The direct sum is an operation between structures in abstract algebra, a branch of mathematics. It is defined differently, but analogously, for different kinds of structures. To see how the direct s

Abelian group

In mathematics, an abelian group, also called a commutative group, is a group in which the result of applying the group operation to two group elements does not depend on the order in which they are

This dissertation is concerned with modular representation theory of finite groups, and more precisely, with the study of classes of representations, which we shall term relative endotrivial modules. Given a prime number p, a finite group G of order divisible by p, we shall say that a kG-module M is endotrivial relatively to the kG-module V if its endomorphism algebra Endk(M) is isomorphic, as a kG-module, to a direct sum of a trivial module and another module which is projective relatively to V , i.e. in short Endk(M) ≅ k ⊕ (V – projective). More accurately, in the first part of the text projectivity relative to kG-modules is used to define groups of relative endotrivial modules, which are obtained by replacing the notion of projectivity with that of relative projectivity in the definition of ordinary endotrivial modules. However, in order to achieve this goal we first need to develop the theory of projectivity relative to modules, in particular with respect to standard group operations such as induction, restriction and inflation. Then, for finite groups having a cyclic Sylow p-subgroup, using the structure of the group T(G) of endotrivial modules described in [MT07], we give a complete classification of the groups of relative endotrivial modules. We also study the case of groups that have a Sylow p-subgroup isomorphic to a Klein group C2 × C2, as well as the case of p-nilpotent groups. In a second part of the text, it is shown how our new groups of relative endotrivial modules provide a natural context to generalise the Dade group of a p-group P to an arbitrary finite group. The classification of endo-permutation modules and the complete description of the structure of the Dade group D(P) was completed in 2004 by S. Bouc with [Bou06]. This adventure had started about 25 years earlier with the first papers and results by E. Dade in [Dad78a] and [Dad78b] in 1978, and the final classification was in fact achieved through the non-effortless combined work of several (co)-authors between 1998 and 2004, including S. Bouc, J. Carlson, N. Mazza and J. Thévenaz. It is most interesting to note that crucial building pieces for this classification are indeed the endotrivial modules, which are particular cases of endo-permutation modules. Yet, for an arbitrary finite group G, no satisfying equivalent group structure to the Dade group on a class of kG-modules has been defined so far. With the goal to fill this gap, we turn the problem upside down, in some sense, and show how one can regard an endo-permutation module as an endotrivial module, of course not in the ordinary sense, but in the relative sense. This shall enable us to endow a set of isomorphism classes of endo-p-permutation modules with a group structure, similar to that of the Dade group. We shall call this new group, the generalised Dade group of the group G, explicitly compute its structure and show how it is closely related to that of the G-stable points of the Dade group of a Sylow p-subgroup of G.

Let G be a finite group with a Sylow 2-subgroup P which is either quaternion or semi-dihedral. Let k be an algebraically closed field of characteristic 2. We prove the existence of exotic endotrivial kG-modules, whose restrictions to P are isomorphic to the direct sum of the known exotic endotrivial kP-modules and some projective modules. This provides a description of the group T(G) of endotrivial kG-modules.

This dissertation is concerned with the study of a new family of representations of finite groups, the endo-p-permutation modules. Given a prime number p, a finite group G of order divisible by p and an algebraically closed field k of characteristic p, we say that a kG-module M is an endo-p-permutation module if its endomorphism algebra Endk(M) is a p-permutation kG-module, that is a direct summand of a permutation kG-module. This generalizes the notion, first introduced by E. Dade in 1978, of endo-permutation modules for p-groups . For P a p-group, E. Dade defined an abelian group structure on the set of isomorphism classes of indecomposable endo-permutation kP-modules with vertex P and he proved that the complete description of the structure of this group is equivalent to the classification of endo-permutation kP-modules. This group of isomorphism classes is now called the Dade group of the p-group P. The problem of describing the Dade group for an arbitrary p-group was recently solved by S. Bouc. This opens the question of studying endo-p-permutation modules, which are the natural generalization to arbitrary finite groups of endo-permutation modules. In the following text, we present the basic properties of endo-p-permutation modules and give a characterization of indecomposable endo-p-permutation modules with vertex P via properties of their sources modules. In particular, when the normalizer of P controls p-fusion, we are able to give a complete classification of sources of indecomposable endo-p-permutation modules with vertex P, using Bouc's description of the Dade group. When p is odd, we also give an alternative proof of a theorem of Dade concerned with extensions of endo-permutation modules, using our previous results. We present a consequence of this theorem of Dade on the structure of the multiplicity module associated to an indecomposable endo-p-permutation module. Finally we study some concrete examples of endo-p-permutation modules such as relative syzygies and relative Heller translates. We prove also that the Green correspondent of an indecomposable kNG(P)- endo-p-permutation module with vertex P is not in general an endo-p-permutation kG-module. The study of such representations is motivated by the important role they play in certain areas of representations theory. For instance, endo-permutation modules, and more generally endo-p-permutation modules (as is proved here), appear in the study of simple modules for p-solvable groups.