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Publication# Coherent actions by homeomorphisms on the real line or an interval

Abstract

We study actions of groups by orientation preserving homeomorphisms on R (or an interval) that are minimal, have solvable germs at +/-infinity and contain a pair of elements of a certain dynamical type. We call such actions coherent. We establish that such an action is rigid, i.e., any two such actions of the same group are topologically conjugate. We also establish that the underlying group is always non-elementary amenable, but satisfies that every proper quotient is solvable. The structure theory we develop allows us to prove a plethora of non-embeddability statements concerning groups of piecewise linear and piecewise projective homeomorphisms. For instance, we demonstrate that any coherent group action G < Horneo(+) (R) that produces a nonamenable equivalence relation with respect to the Lebesgue measure satisfies that the underlying group does not embed into Thompson's group F. This includes all known examples of nonamenable groups that do not contain non abelian free subgroups and act faithfully on the real line by homeomorphisms. We also establish that the Brown-Stein-Thompson groups F(2, pi, horizontal ellipsis ,p(n)) for n >= 1 and p(1), horizontal ellipsis ,p(n) distinct odd primes, do not embed into Thompson's group F. This answers a question recently raised by C. Bleak, M. Brin and J. Moore.

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Free abelian group

In mathematics, a free abelian group is an abelian group with a basis. Being an abelian group means that it is a set with an addition operation that is associative, commutative, and invertible. A bas

Homeomorphism

In the mathematical field of topology, a homeomorphism (, named by Henri Poincaré), also called topological isomorphism, or bicontinuous function, is a bijective and continuous function between topo

Lebesgue measure

In measure theory, a branch of mathematics, the Lebesgue measure, named after French mathematician Henri Lebesgue, is the standard way of assigning a measure to subsets of n-dimensional Euclidean spa

We show that for a large class C of finitely generated groups of orientation preserving homeomorphisms of the real line, the following holds: Given a group G of rank k in C, there is a sequence of k-markings (G,S-n), n is an element of N whose limit in the space of marked groups is the free group of rank k with the standard marking. The class we consider consists of groups that admit actions satisfying mild dynamical conditions and a certain "self-similarity" type hypothesis. Examples include Thompson's group F, Higman-Thompson groups, Stein-Thompson groups, various Bieri-Strebel groups, the golden ratio Thompson group, and finitely presented nonamenable groups of piecewise projective homeomorphisms. For the case of Thompson's group F we provide a new and considerably simpler proof of this fact proved by Brin in [4]. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2020The Tarski number of a nonamenable group is the smallest number of pieces needed for a paradoxical decomposition of the group. Nonamenable groups of piecewise projective homeomorphisms were introduced in [N. Monod, Groups of piecewise projective homeomorphisms, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 110(12) (2013) 4524-4527], and nonamenable finitely presented groups of piecewise projective homeomorphisms were introduced in [Y. Lodha and J. T. Moore, A finitely presented non amenable group of piecewise projective homeomorphisms, Groups, Geom. Dyn. 10(1) (2016) 177-200]. These groups do not contain non-abelian free subgroups. In this paper, we prove that the Tarski number of all groups in both families is at most 25. In particular, we demonstrate the existence of a paradoxical decomposition with 25 pieces. Our argument also applies to any group of piecewise projective homeomorphisms that contains as a subgroup the group of piecewise PSL2(Z) homeomorphisms of R with rational breakpoints and an affine map that is a not an integer translation.

We construct a finitely presented, infinite, simple group that acts by homeomorphisms on the circle, but does not admit a non-trivial action by C1-diffeomorphisms on the circle. This is the first such example. The group emerges as a group of piecewise projective homeomorphisms of S1=R?{infinity}. We also show that it does not admit a non-trivial action by piecewise linear homeomorphisms of the circle. Another interesting and new feature of this example is that it produces a non-amenable orbit equivalence relation with respect to the Lebesgue measure.