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Publication# Ising Model and Field Theory: Lattice Local Fields and Massive Scaling Limit

Abstract

This thesis is devoted to the study of the local fields in the Ising model. The scaling limit of the critical Ising model is conjecturally described by Conformal Field Theory. The explicit predictions for the building blocks of the continuum theory (spin and energy density) have been rigorously established [HoSm13, CHI15]. We study how the field-theoretic description of these random fields extends beyond the critical regime of the model. Concretely, the thesis consists of two parts: The first part studies the behaviour of lattice local fields in the critical Ising model. A lattice local field is a function of a finite number of spins at microscopic distances from a given point. We study one-point functions of these fields (in particular, their asymptotics under scaling limit and conformal invariance). Our analysis, based on discrete complex analysis methods, results in explicit computations which are of interest in applications (e.g. [HKV17]). The second part considers the behaviour of the massive spin field. In the subcritical massive scaling limit regime first considered by Wu, McCoy, Tracy, and Barouch [WMTB76], we show that the correlations of the massive spin field in a bounded domain have a scaling limit. Furthermore, to this end we generalise the notions and methods of discrete complex analysis in the critical case to the massive regime, and give a new derivation of the formula for the two-point correlation in the full plane in terms of a Painlevé III transcendent.

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Analysis

Analysis (: analyses) is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better understanding of it. The technique has been applied in the study of mathematics and logic since before Aristotle (384–322 B.C.), though analysis as a formal concept is a relatively recent development. The word comes from the Ancient Greek ἀνάλυσις (analysis, "a breaking-up" or "an untying;" from ana- "up, throughout" and lysis "a loosening"). From it also comes the word's plural, analyses.

Ising model

The Ising model (ˈiːzɪŋ) (or Lenz-Ising model or Ising-Lenz model), named after the physicists Ernst Ising and Wilhelm Lenz, is a mathematical model of ferromagnetism in statistical mechanics. The model consists of discrete variables that represent magnetic dipole moments of atomic "spins" that can be in one of two states (+1 or −1). The spins are arranged in a graph, usually a lattice (where the local structure repeats periodically in all directions), allowing each spin to interact with its neighbors.

Complex analysis

Complex analysis, traditionally known as the theory of functions of a complex variable, is the branch of mathematical analysis that investigates functions of complex numbers. It is helpful in many branches of mathematics, including algebraic geometry, number theory, analytic combinatorics, applied mathematics; as well as in physics, including the branches of hydrodynamics, thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, and twistor theory. By extension, use of complex analysis also has applications in engineering fields such as nuclear, aerospace, mechanical and electrical engineering.

Critical statistical mechanics and Conformal Field Theory (CFT) are conjecturally connected since the seminal work of Beliavin et al. (Nucl Phys B 241(2):333-380, 1984). Both exhibit exactly solvable

This thesis is centered on questions coming from Machine Learning (ML) and Statistical Field Theory (SFT).In Machine Learning, we consider the subfield of Supervised Learning (SL), and in particular r

Clément Hongler, Sung Chul Park

We study the 2-dimensional Ising model at critical temperature on a simply connected subset of the square grid Z2. The scaling limit of the critical Ising model is conjectured to be described by Confo