Résumé
Superconducting quantum computing is a branch of solid state quantum computing that implements superconducting electronic circuits using superconducting qubits as artificial atoms, or quantum dots. For superconducting qubits, the two logic states are the ground state and the excited state, denoted respectively. Research in superconducting quantum computing is conducted by companies such as Google, IBM, IMEC, BBN Technologies, Rigetti, and Intel. Many recently developed QPUs (quantum processing units, or quantum chips) utilize superconducting architecture. up to 9 fully controllable qubits are demonstrated in the 1D array, and up to 16 in 2D architecture. In October 2019, the Martinis group, partnered with Google, published an article demonstrating novel quantum supremacy, using a chip composed of 53 superconducting qubits. Classical computation models rely on physical implementations consistent with the laws of classical mechanics. Classical descriptions are accurate only for specific systems consisting of a relatively large number of atoms. A more general description of nature is given by quantum mechanics. Quantum computation studies quantum phenomena applications beyond the scope of classical approximation for the purpose of informing artificial intelligence processing and communication. Various models of quantum computation exist, but the most popular models incorporate concepts of qubits and quantum gates (or gate-based superconducting quantum computing). Superconductors are implemented due to the fact that at low temperatures they have almost infinite conductivity and almost zero resistance. Each qubit is built using semiconductor circuits with an LC circuit: a capacitor and an inductor. Superconducting capacitors and inductors are used to produce a resonant circuit that dissipates almost no energy, as heat can disrupt quantum information. The superconducting resonant circuits are a class of artificial atoms that can be used as qubits. Theoretical and physical implementations of quantum circuits are widely different.
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