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Concept# Asymptotic equipartition property

Résumé

In information theory, the asymptotic equipartition property (AEP) is a general property of the output samples of a stochastic source. It is fundamental to the concept of typical set used in theories of data compression.
Roughly speaking, the theorem states that although there are many series of results that may be produced by a random process, the one actually produced is most probably from a loosely defined set of outcomes that all have approximately the same chance of being the one actually realized. (This is a consequence of the law of large numbers and ergodic theory.) Although there are individual outcomes which have a higher probability than any outcome in this set, the vast number of outcomes in the set almost guarantees that the outcome will come from the set. One way of intuitively understanding the property is through Cramér's large deviation theorem, which states that the probability of a large deviation from mean decays exponentially with the number of samples. Such res

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Séances de cours associées (18)

We study the optimal strategy for a sailboat to reach an upwind island under the hypothesis that the wind direction fluctuates according to a Brownian motion and the wind speed is constant. The work is motivated by a concrete problem which typically arises during sailing regattas, namely finding the best tacking strategy to reach the upwind buoy as quickly as possible. We assume that there is no loss of time when tacking. We first guess an optimal strategy and then we establish its optimality by using the dynamic programming principle. The Hamilton Jacobi Bellmann equation obtained is a parabolic PDE with Neumann boundary conditions. Since it does not admit a closed form solution, the proof of optimality involves an intricate estimate of derivatives of the value function. We explicitly provide the asymptotic shape of the value function. In order to do so, we prove a result on large time behavior for solutions to time dependent parabolic PDE using a coupling argument. In particular, a boat far from the island approaches the island at $\frac{1}{2} + \frac{\sqrt{2}}{\pi} = 95.02\%$ of the boat's speed.

This thesis is a small part of the preparation of the launch of the Gaia mission, a satellite of the European Space Agency (ESA). One of the goals of the mission is to perform a classification among variable stars considering different attributes. Periodic behavior in the observed light curve is such an attribute. It is of importance to determine these hidden cycles with as high an accuracy as possible. A key difficulty is connected to the fact that observations are taken at irregularly distributed time points. Classical methods of frequency analysis do not work in this situation. In a first step, we made a catalogue of potential solutions and applied them to real and simulated data. The performances have been compared in order to select the best method. In a second step, we considered the asymptotic performance of estimators based on regression methods. We derived the asymptotic distribution under the hypothesis that the observation model contains a periodic signal with period P0 > 0, continuous and square integrable on [0; P0), with Gaussian correlated errors. The irregular sampling has to satisfy the asymptotic property that the whole interval [0, P0) can be observed. We have also considered the special case of a periodic signal with period P0 > 0, piecewise constant on [0; P0) and the asymptotic distribution of the estimator. If an irregular sampling scheme does not satisfy the asymptotic property that the signal can be fully observed, the period can still be estimated reliably. We determined the asymptotic distribution of an estimator in a particular situation and under the assumption that the observation model contains a periodic signal with period P0 > 0, continuous and square integrable on [0; P0), and is observed with additive errors that are independent and identically distributed.