Résumé
A network on a chip or network-on-chip (NoC ˌɛnˌoʊˈsiː or nɒk ) is a network-based communications subsystem on an integrated circuit ("microchip"), most typically between modules in a system on a chip (SoC). The modules on the IC are typically semiconductor IP cores schematizing various functions of the computer system, and are designed to be modular in the sense of network science. The network on chip is a router-based packet switching network between SoC modules. NoC technology applies the theory and methods of computer networking to on-chip communication and brings notable improvements over conventional bus and crossbar communication architectures. Networks-on-chip come in many network topologies, many of which are still experimental as of 2018. In 2000s researchers had started to propose a type of on-chip interconnection in the form of packet switching networks in order to address the scalability issues of bus-based design. Preceding researches proposed the design that routes data packets instead of routing the wires. Then, the concept of "network on chips" was proposed in 2002. NoCs improve the scalability of systems-on-chip and the power efficiency of complex SoCs compared to other communication subsystem designs. They are an emerging technology, with projections for large growth in the near future as multicore computer architectures become more common. NoCs can span synchronous and asynchronous clock domains, known as clock domain crossing, or use unclocked asynchronous logic. NoCs support globally asynchronous, locally synchronous electronics architectures, allowing each processor core or functional unit on the System-on-Chip to have its own clock domain. NoC architectures typically model sparse small-world networks (SWNs) and scale-free networks (SFNs) to limit the number, length, area and power consumption of interconnection wires and point-to-point connections. The topology is the first fundamental aspect of NoC design, and it has a profound effect on the overall network cost and performance.
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