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Publication# Numerical approximation of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations with an application to the flow past a square cylinder

Résumé

The goal of this project is to numerically solve the Navier-Stokes equations by using different numerical methods with particular emphasis on solving the problem of the flow past a square cylinder. In particular, we use the finite element method based on P2/P1 elements for the velocity and pressure fields for the spatial approximation, while the backward Euler method (with semi-implicit treatment of the nonlinear term) for the time discretization. We firstly test the numerical schemes on a benchmark problem with known exact solution. Then, we discuss in detail the advantages, in terms of computational costs, in using the algebraic Chorin-Temam method with additional implementation improvements. We finally investigate the problem of the two-dimensional flow past a square cylinder, focusing our attention on the range 0.1-300 for the Reynolds number (Re). We describe the two different regimes associated to the steady and the unsteady flows and we remark as the latter is in fact due to a Hopf bifurcation of the system. We also discuss the relation between the Strouhal and Reynolds numbers concluding that the Strouhal number attains its maximum value in the range 169-170 for the Reynolds number. In particular, a cubic model is proposed, showing very good matching with observed data and a better fitting than other models available in literature.

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Nombre de Reynolds

En mécanique des fluides, le , noté \mathrm{Re}, est un nombre sans dimension caractéristique de la transition laminaire-turbulent. Il est mis en évidence en par Osborne Reynolds.
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Équations de Navier-Stokes

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Hydrocontest is a student competition involving teams from different universities around Switzerland and the world. This projects aims at providing an analysis of the performances of hydrofoils by means of computational fluid dynamics in a High Performance Computing context. The numerical scheme is based on the Finite Elements method for the spatial approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations, while on Backward Differentiation Formulas for the time discretization. The numerical implementation is performed in the parallel Finite Elements library LifeV.

2015This thesis is devoted to the derivation of error estimates for partial differential equations with random input data, with a focus on a posteriori error estimates which are the basis for adaptive strategies. Such procedures aim at obtaining an approximation of the solution with a given precision while minimizing the computational costs. If several sources of error come into play, it is then necessary to balance them to avoid unnecessary work. We are first interested in problems that contain small uncertainties approximated by finite elements. The use of perturbation techniques is appropriate in this setting since only few terms in the power series expansion of the exact random solution with respect to a parameter characterizing the amount of randomness in the problem are required to obtain an accurate approximation. The goal is then to perform an error analysis for the finite element approximation of the expansion up to a certain order. First, an elliptic model problem with random diffusion coefficient with affine dependence on a vector of independent random variables is studied. We give both a priori and a posteriori error estimates for the first term in the expansion for various norms of the error. The results are then extended to higher order approximations and to other sources of uncertainty, such as boundary conditions or forcing term. Next, the analysis of nonlinear problems in random domains is proposed, considering the one-dimensional viscous Burgers' equation and the more involved incompressible steady-state Navier-Stokes equations. The domain mapping method is used to transform the equations in random domains into equations in a fixed reference domain with random coefficients. We give conditions on the mapping and the input data under which we can prove the well-posedness of the problems and give a posteriori error estimates for the finite element approximation of the first term in the expansion. Finally, we consider the heat equation with random Robin boundary conditions. For this parabolic problem, the time discretization brings an additional source of error that is accounted for in the error analysis. The second part of this work consists in the analysis of a random elliptic diffusion problem that is approximated in the physical space by the finite element method and in the stochastic space by the stochastic collocation method on a sparse grid. Considering a random diffusion coefficient with affine dependence on a vector of independent random variables, we derive a residual-based a posteriori error estimate that controls the two sources of error. The stochastic error estimator is then used to drive an adaptive sparse grid algorithm which aims at alleviating the so-called curse of dimensionality inherent to tensor grids. Several numerical examples are given to illustrate the performance of the adaptive procedure.

In this paper, we propose a semi-implicit approach for the time discretization of the Navier–Stokes equations with Variational Multiscale-Large Eddy Simulation turbulence modeling (VMS-LES). For the spatial approximation of the problem, we use the Finite Element method, while we employ the Backward Differentiation Formulas (BDF) for the time discretization. We treat the nonlinear terms arising in the variational formulation of the problem with a semi-implicit approach leading to a linear system associated to the fully discrete problem which needs to be assembled and solved only once at each discrete time instance. We solve this linear system by means of the GMRES method by employing a multigrid (ML) right preconditioner for the parallel setting. We validate the proposed fully discrete scheme towards the benchmark problem of the flow past a squared cylinder at high Reynolds number and we show the computational efficiency and scalability results of the solver in a High Performance Computing framework.