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Publication# Online Matching with General Arrivals

Buddhima Ruwanmini Gamlath Gamlath Ralalage, Mikhail Kapralov, Andreas Maggiori, Ola Nils Anders Svensson, David Wajc

*IEEE COMPUTER SOC, *2019

Article de conférence

Article de conférence

Résumé

The online matching problem was introduced by Karp, Vazirani and Vazirani nearly three decades ago. In that seminal work, they studied this problem in bipartite graphs with vertices arriving only on one side, and presented optimal deterministic and randomized algorithms for this setting. In comparison, more general arrival models, such as edge arrivals and general vertex arrivals, have proven more challenging and positive results are known only for various relaxations of the problem. In particular, even the basic question of whether randomization allows one to beat the trivially-optimal deterministic competitive ratio of 1/2 for either of these models was open. In this paper, we resolve this question for both these natural arrival models, and show the following. 1) For edge arrivals, randomization does not help no randomized algorithm is better than 1/2 competitive. 2) For general vertex arrivals, randomization helps - there exists a randomized (1/2+Omega (1))-competitive online matching algorithm.

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Publications associées (7)

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In our daily lives, our mobile phones sense our movements and interactions via a rich set of embedded sensors such as a GPS, Bluetooth, accelerometers, and microphones. This enables us to use mobile phones as agents for collecting spatio-temporal data. The idea of mining these spatio-temporal data is currently being explored for many applications, including environmental pollution monitoring, health care, and social networking. When used as sensing devices, a particular feature of mobile phones is their aspect of mobility, in contrast to static sensors. Furthermore, despite having useful applications, collecting data from mobile phones introduces privacy concerns, as the collected data might reveal sensitive information about the users, especially if the collector has access to auxiliary information. In the first part of this thesis, we use spatio-temporal data collected by mobile phones in order to evaluate different features of a population related to their mobility patterns. In particular, we consider the problems of population-size and population-density estimation that have applications, among others, in crowd monitoring, activity-hotspot detection, and urban analysis. We first conduct an experiment where ten attendees of an open-air music festival act as Bluetooth probes. Next, we construct parametric statistical models to estimate the total number of visible Bluetooth devices and their density in the festival area. We further test our proposed models against Wi-Fi traces obtained on the EPFL campus. We conclude that mobile phones can be effectively used as sensing devices to evaluate mobility-related parameters of a population. For the specific problem of population-density estimation, we investigate the mobility aspect of sensing: We quantitatively analyze the performance of mobile sensors compared to static sensors. Under an independent and identically distributed mobility model for the population, we derive the optimal random-movement strategy for mobile sensors in order to yield the best estimate of population density (in the mean-squared error sense). This enables us to plan an adaptive trajectory for the mobile sensors. In particular, we demonstrate that mobility brings an added value to the sensors; these sensors outperform static sensors for long observation intervals. In the second part of this thesis, we analyze the vulnerability of anonymized mobility statistics stored in the form of histograms. We consider an attacker who has access to an anonymized set of histograms of a set of users’ mobility traces and to an independent set of non-anonymized histograms of traces belonging to the same users. We study the hypothesis-testing problem of identifying the correct matching between the anonymized histograms and the non-anonymized histograms. We show that the solution can be obtained by using a minimum-weight matching algorithm on a complete weighted bipartite graph. By applying the algorithm to Wi-Fi traces obtained on the EPFL campus, we demonstrate that in fact anonymized histograms contain a significant amount of information that could be used to uniquely identify users by an attacker with access to auxiliary information about the users. Finally, we demonstrate how trust relationships between users can be exploited to enhance their privacy. We consider the specific problem of the privacy-preserving computation of functions of data that belong to users in a social network. An example of an application is a poll or a survey on a private issue. Most of the known non-cryptographic solutions to this problem can be viewed as belonging to one of the following two extreme regimes. The first regime is when every user trusts only herself and she is responsible for protecting her own privacy. In other words, the circle of trust of a user has a single member: herself. In the second regime, every user trusts herself and the server, but not any of the other users. In other words, the circle of trust of a user comprises herself and the server. We investigate this problem under the assumption that users are willing to share their private data with trusted friends in the network, hence we consider a regime in which the circle of trust of a user consists of herself and her friends. Thus, our approach falls in-between the two mentioned regimes. Our algorithm consists of first partitioning users into circles of trust and then computing the global function by using results of local computations within each circle. We demonstrate that such trust relationships can be exploited to significantly improve the tradeoff between the privacy of users' data and the accuracy of the computation.

Graph theory experienced a remarkable increase of interest among the scientific community during the last decades. The vertex coloring problem (Min Coloring) deserves a particular attention rince it has been able to capture a wide variety of applications. For mathematicians, it is interesting for an additional reason: it is extremely hard to solve it in an efficient way. In this thesis, we introduce several problems generalizing the usual vertex coloring problem, and hence, extending its application domain. We say that a graph is (p, k)-colorable if its vertex set can be partitioned into p cliques and k stable sets. Then, for a given p (respectively k), one may ask the following questions: how to choose p cliques (respectively k stable sets) to be removed from the graph such that the number of stable sets (respectively cliques) partitioning the remaining vertices is minimized? These are called (p, k)-coloring problems. We also introduce Min Split-coloring which is, given a graph G, the problem of minimizing k such that G is (k, k)-colorable. Along the saine line, given a graph G, the objective of the problem Min Cocoloring is to minimize p + k such that G is (p, k)-colorable. All these problems, called together generalized coloring problems, are obviously at least as difficult as Min Coloring. The purpose of this dissertation is to study generalized coloring problems in nome restricted classes of graphs in order to bring a new insight on the relative difficulties of these problems. To this end, we detect in a more precise way the limits between NP-hard and polynomially solvable problems. Chapter 1 introduces generalized coloring problems by emphasizing nome preliminary results which will guide the questions to handle in the following chapters. Chapter 2 exposes the first clans of graphs, namely cacti, where Min Split-coloring is shown to be polynomially solvable. We also observe that generalized coloring problems can be polynomially solved in triangulated graphs. The main result of Chapter 3 is a new characterization of cographs: it is equivalent to say that G is a cograph, and to state that, for every subgraph G' ⊆ G, G' is (p, k)-colorable if and only if G' [V \ K] is (p – 1, k)-colorable, where K induces a maximum clique of G'. This result implies simple combinatorial algorithme to solve all generalized coloring problems; the one for Min Cocoloring improves the best time complexity known so far. In Chapter 4, we handle the recognition of polar graphs which can be seen as a particular (p, k)-coloring, where p cliques are independent (i.e., not linked at all) and k stable sets form a complete k-partite graph. It is known that the recognition of polar graphs is NP-complete. Here, we determine the first clans of graphs, namely cographs, where the polar graphs can be recognized in polynomial time, more precisely in time O(n log n). We also give a characterization by forbidden subgraphs. In the came manner, we characterize monopolar cographs, i.e., cographs admitting a polar partition with at most one clique or at most one stable set. Chapter 5 is devoted to generalized coloring problems in line graphs. Here, we detect the first classes of graphs, namely line graphs of trees, line graphs of bipartite graphs and line graphs of line-perfect graphs, where generalized coloring problems diverge in terms of NP-hardness. In Chapter 6 we study the approximability of generalized coloring problems in line graphs, in comparability graphs and in general graphs. We derive approximation algorithms with a performance guarantee using both the standard approximation ratio and the differential approximation ratio. We show that both Min Split-coloring and Min Cocoloring are at least as hard as Min Coloring to approximate from the standard approximation ratio point of view, whereas, they admit a polynomial time differential approximation scheme and Min Coloring only a constant differential approximation ratio. We also show that Min Cocoloring reduces to Min Split-coloring in all classes of graphs closed under addition of disjoint cliques and under join of a complete k-partite graph. In Chapter 7, we handle two different applications of Min Split-coloring in permutation graphs. They give birth to a new problem, called Min Threshold-coloring, that we study in the came spirit as the other generalized coloring problems. In the last chapter, we present several open questions arising from this thesis.

One of the classic results in scheduling theory is the 2-approximation algorithm by Lenstra, Shmoys, and Tardos for the problem of scheduling jobs to minimize makespan on unrelated machines, i.e., job j requires time p ij if processed on machine i. More than two decades after its introduction it is still the algorithm of choice even in the restricted model where processing times are of the form pij ∈ pj, ∞. This problem, also known as the restricted assignment problem, is NP-hard to approximate within a factor less than 1.5 which is also the best known lower bound for the general version. Our main result is a polynomial time algorithm that estimates the optimal makespan of the restricted assignment problem within a factor 33/17 + ∈ ∼ 1.9412 + ∈, where ∈ > 0 is an arbitrarily small constant. The result is obtained by upper bounding the integrality gap of a certain strong linear program, known as configuration LP, that was previously successfully used for the related Santa Claus problem. Similar to the strongest analysis for that problem our proof is based on a local search algorithm that will eventually find a schedule of the mentioned approximation guarantee, but is not known to converge in polynomial time. © 2011 ACM.

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