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Publication# Einstein's quantum elevator: Hermitization of non-Hermitian Hamiltonians via a generalized vielbein formalism

Résumé

The formalism for non-Hermitian quantum systems sometimes blurs the underlying physics. We present a systematic study of the vielbeinlike formalism which transforms the Hilbert space bundles of non-Hermitian systems into the conventional ones, rendering the induced Hamiltonian to be Hermitian. In other words, any non-Hermitian Hamiltonian can be "transformed" into a Hermitian one without altering the physics. Thus we show how to find a reference frame (corresponding to Einstein's quantum elevator) in which a non-Hermitian system, equipped with a nontrivial Hilbert space metric, reduces to a Hermitian system within the standard formalism of quantum mechanics.

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Mécanique quantique

La mécanique quantique est la branche de la physique théorique qui a succédé à la théorie des quanta et à la mécanique ondulatoire pour étudier et décrire les phénomènes fondamentaux à l'œuvre dans

Physique

La physique est la science qui essaie de comprendre, de modéliser et d'expliquer les phénomènes naturels de l'Univers. Elle correspond à l'étude du monde qui nous entoure sous toutes ses formes, des

Hermitien

Plusieurs entités mathématiques sont qualifiées d'hermitiennes en référence au mathématicien Charles Hermite.
Produit scalaire hermitien et espace hermitien
Produit scalaire#Généralisatio

Why are classical theories often sufficient to describe the physics of our world even though everything around us is entirely composed of microscopic quantum systems? The boundary between these two fundamentally dissimilar theories remains an unsolved problem in modern physics. Position measurements of small objects allow us to probe the area where the classical approximation breaks down. In quantum mechanics, Heisenbergâs uncertainty principle dictates that any measurement of the position must be accompanied by measurement induced back-action---in this case manifested as an uncertainty in the momentum. In recent years, cavity optomechanics has become a powerful tool to perform precise position measurements and investigate their fundamental limitations. The utilization of optical micro-cavities greatly enhances the interaction between light and state-of-the-art nanomechanical oscillators. Therefore, quantum mechanical phenomena have been successfully observed in systems far beyond the microscopic world. In such a cavity optomechanical system, the fluctuations in the position of the oscillator are transduced onto the phase of the light, while fluctuations in the amplitude of the light disturb the momentum of the oscillator during the measurement. As a consequence, correlations are established between the amplitude and phase quadrature of the probe light. However, so far, observation of quantum effects has been limited exclusively to cryogenic experiments, and access to the quantum regime at room temperature has remained an elusive goal because the overwhelming amount of thermal motion masks the weak quantum effects. This thesis describes the engineering of a high-performance cavity optomechanical device and presents experimental results showing, for the first time, the broadband effects of quantum back-action at room temperature. The device strongly couples mechanical and optical modes of exceptionally high quality factors to provide a measurement sensitivity $\sim\!10^4$ times below the requirement to resolve the zero-point fluctuations of the mechanical oscillator. The quantum back-action is then observed through the correlations created between the probe light and the motion of the nanomechanical oscillator. A so-called âvariational measurementâ, which detects the transmitted light in a homodyne detector tuned close to the amplitude quadrature, resolves the quantum noise due to these correlations at the level of 10% of the thermal noise over more than an octave of Fourier frequencies around mechanical resonance. Moreover, building on this result, an additional experiment demonstrates the ability to achieve quantum enhanced metrology. In this case, the generated quantum correlations are used to cancel quantum noise in the measurement record, which then leads to an improved relative signal-to-noise ratio in measurements of an external force. In conclusion, the successful observation of broadband quantum behavior on a macroscopic object at room temperature is an important milestone in the field of cavity optomechanics. Specifically, this result heralds the rise of optomechanical systems as a platform for quantum physics at room temperature and shows promise for generation of ponderomotive squeezing in room-temperature interferometers.

In this PhD thesis we deal with two mathematical problems arising from quantum mechanics. We consider a spinless non relativistic quantum particle whose configuration space is a two dimensional surface S. We also suppose that the particle feels the effect of an homogeneous magnetic field perpendicular to the surface S. In the first case S = R × SL1, the infinite cylinder of circumference L, corresponding to periodic boundary conditions, while in the second one S = R2. In both cases the particle feels the effect of an additional suitable potential. We are thus left with the study of two specific classes of Schrödinger operators. The operator of the first class generates the dynamics of the particle when it is submitted to an Anderson-type random potential, as well as to a non random potential confining the particle along the cylinder axis in an interval of length L. In this case we describe the spectrum and classify it by the quantum mechanical current carried by the corresponding eigenfunctions. We prove that there are spectral regions in which all the eigenvalues have an order one current with respect to L, and spectral regions where eigenvalues with order one current and eigenvalues with infinitesimal current with respect to L are intermixed. These results are relevant for the theory of the integer quantum Hall effect. The second Schrödinger operator class corresponds to the physical situation where the potential is the sum of a "local" potential and of a potential due to a weak constant electric field F. In this case we show that the resonant states, induced by the electric field, decay exponentially at a rate given by the imaginary part of the eigenvalues of some non self-adjoint operator. Moreover we prove an upper bound on this imaginary part that turns out to be of order exp(-1/F2) as F goes to zero. Therefore the lifetime of the resonant states is at least of order exp(-1/F2).

José Luis Abelleira Fernández, Werner Friedrich Herr, Tatiana Pieloni, Ngoc Thanh Trinh, Frank Zimmermann

The physics programme and the design are described of a new collider for particle and nuclear physics, the Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC), in which a newly built electron beam of 60 GeV, to possibly 140 GeV, energy collides with the intense hadron beams of the LHC. Compared to the first ep collider, HERA, the kinematic range covered is extended by a factor of twenty in the negative four-momentum squared, Q^2, and in the inverse Bjorken x, while with the design luminosity of 1e33 cm-2 s-1 the LHeC is projected to exceed the integrated HERA luminosity by two orders of magnitude. The physics programme is devoted to an exploration of the energy frontier, complementing the LHC and its discovery potential for physics beyond the Standard Model with high precision deep inelastic scattering measurements. These are designed to investigate a variety of fundamental questions in strong and electroweak interactions. The LHeC thus continues the path of deep inelastic scattering (DIS) into unknown areas of physics and kinematics. The physics programme also includes electron-deuteron and electron-ion scattering in a (Q^2 1/x) range extended by four orders of magnitude as compared to previous lepton-nucleus DIS experiments for novel investigations of neutron's and nuclear structure, the initial conditions of Quark-Gluon Plasma formation and further quantum chromodynamic phenomena. The LHeC may be realised either as a ring-ring or as a linac-ring collider. Optics and beam dynamics studies are presented for both versions, along with technical design considerations on the interaction region, magnets including new dipole prototypes, cryogenics, RF, and further components. A design study is also presented of a detector suitable to perform high precision DIS measurements in a wide range of acceptance using state-of-the art detector technology, which is modular and of limited size enabling its fast installation. The detector includes tagging devices for electron, photon, proton and neutron detection near to the beam pipe. Civil engineering and installation studies are presented for the accelerator and the detector. The LHeC can be built within a decade and thus be operated while the LHC runs in its high-luminosity phase. It so represents a major opportunity for progress in particle physics exploiting the investment made in the LHC.