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Concept# Time-invariant system

Summary

In control theory, a time-invariant (TI) system has a time-dependent system function that is not a direct function of time. Such systems are regarded as a class of systems in the field of system analysis. The time-dependent system function is a function of the time-dependent input function. If this function depends only indirectly on the time-domain (via the input function, for example), then that is a system that would be considered time-invariant. Conversely, any direct dependence on the time-domain of the system function could be considered as a "time-varying system".
Mathematically speaking, "time-invariance" of a system is the following property:
Given a system with a time-dependent output function y(t), and a time-dependent input function x(t), the system will be considered time-invariant if a time-delay on the input x(t+\delta) directly equates to a time-delay of the output y(t+\delta) function. For example, if time t is "elapsed time", then "time-invariance" implies that the relationship between the input function x(t) and the output function y(t) is constant with respect to time t:
In the language of signal processing, this property can be satisfied if the transfer function of the system is not a direct function of time except as expressed by the input and output.
In the context of a system schematic, this property can also be stated as follows, as shown in the figure to the right:
If a system is time-invariant then the system block commutes with an arbitrary delay.
If a time-invariant system is also linear, it is the subject of linear time-invariant theory (linear time-invariant) with direct applications in NMR spectroscopy, seismology, circuits, signal processing, control theory, and other technical areas. Nonlinear time-invariant systems lack a comprehensive, governing theory. Discrete time-invariant systems are known as shift-invariant systems. Systems which lack the time-invariant property are studied as time-variant systems.

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Time-invariant system

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In system analysis, among other fields of study, a linear time-invariant (LTI) system is a system that produces an output signal from any input signal subject to the constraints of linearity and time-invariance; these terms are briefly defined below. These properties apply (exactly or approximately) to many important physical systems, in which case the response y(t) of the system to an arbitrary input x(t) can be found directly using convolution: y(t) = (x ∗ h)(t) where h(t) is called the system's impulse response and ∗ represents convolution (not to be confused with multiplication).

System analysis

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