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Concept# Chain complex

Summary

In mathematics, a chain complex is an algebraic structure that consists of a sequence of abelian groups (or modules) and a sequence of homomorphisms between consecutive groups such that the of each homomorphism is included in the kernel of the next. Associated to a chain complex is its homology, which describes how the images are included in the kernels.
A cochain complex is similar to a chain complex, except that its homomorphisms are in the opposite direction. The homology of a cochain complex is called its cohomology.
In algebraic topology, the singular chain complex of a topological space X is constructed using continuous maps from a simplex to X, and the homomorphisms of the chain complex capture how these maps restrict to the boundary of the simplex. The homology of this chain complex is called the singular homology of X, and is a commonly used invariant of a topological space.
Chain complexes are studied in homological algebra, but are used in several areas of mathematics, including abstract algebra, Galois theory, differential geometry and algebraic geometry. They can be defined more generally in abelian categories.
A chain complex is a sequence of abelian groups or modules ..., A0, A1, A2, A3, A4, ... connected by homomorphisms (called boundary operators or differentials) dn : An → An−1, such that the composition of any two consecutive maps is the zero map. Explicitly, the differentials satisfy dn ∘ dn+1 = 0, or with indices suppressed, d2 = 0. The complex may be written out as follows.
The cochain complex is the notion to a chain complex. It consists of a sequence of abelian groups or modules ..., A0, A1, A2, A3, A4, ... connected by homomorphisms dn : An → An+1 satisfying dn+1 ∘ dn = 0. The cochain complex may be written out in a similar fashion to the chain complex.
The index n in either An or An is referred to as the degree (or dimension). The difference between chain and cochain complexes is that, in chain complexes, the differentials decrease dimension, whereas in cochain complexes they increase dimension.

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In mathematics, a chain complex is an algebraic structure that consists of a sequence of abelian groups (or modules) and a sequence of homomorphisms between consecutive groups such that the of each homomorphism is included in the kernel of the next. Associated to a chain complex is its homology, which describes how the images are included in the kernels. A cochain complex is similar to a chain complex, except that its homomorphisms are in the opposite direction. The homology of a cochain complex is called its cohomology.

In mathematics, homology is a general way of associating a sequence of algebraic objects, such as abelian groups or modules, with other mathematical objects such as topological spaces. Homology groups were originally defined in algebraic topology. Similar constructions are available in a wide variety of other contexts, such as abstract algebra, groups, Lie algebras, Galois theory, and algebraic geometry. The original motivation for defining homology groups was the observation that two shapes can be distinguished by examining their holes.

In mathematics, specifically in homology theory and algebraic topology, cohomology is a general term for a sequence of abelian groups, usually one associated with a topological space, often defined from a cochain complex. Cohomology can be viewed as a method of assigning richer algebraic invariants to a space than homology. Some versions of cohomology arise by dualizing the construction of homology. In other words, cochains are functions on the group of chains in homology theory.

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Kathryn Hess Bellwald, Varvara Karpova, Magdalena Kedziorek

We prove existence results à la Jeff Smith for left-induced model category structures, of which the injective model structure on a diagram category is an important example. We further develop the notions of fibrant generation and Postnikov presentation from work of the second author, which are dual to a weak form of cofibrant generation and cellular presentation. As examples, for k a field and H a differential graded Hopf algebra over k, we produce a left-induced model structure on augmented H-comodule algebras and show that the category of bounded below chain complexes of finite-dimensional k-vector spaces has a Postnikov presentation. To conclude, we investigate the fibrant generation of (generalized) Reedy categories. In passing, we also consider cofibrant generation, cellular presentation, and the small object argument for Reedy diagrams.

2015