Summary
The Canton of Geneva, officially the Republic and Canton of Geneva, is one of the 26 cantons forming the Swiss Confederation. It is composed of forty-five municipalities, and the seat of the government and parliament is in the City of Geneva. Geneva is the French-speaking westernmost canton of Switzerland. It lies at the western end of Lake Geneva and on both sides of the Rhone, its main river. Within the country, the canton shares borders with Vaud to the east, the only adjacent canton. However, the borders of the canton are essentially international, with the French region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes. As is the case in several other Swiss cantons (Ticino, Neuchâtel, and Jura), Geneva is referred to as a republic within the Swiss Confederation. One of the most populated cantons, Geneva is considered one of the most cosmopolitan regions of the country. As a center of the Calvinist Reformation, the city of Geneva has had a great influence on the canton, which essentially consists of the city and its suburbs. Notable institutions of international importance based in the canton are the University of Geneva, the United Nations, the International Committee of the Red Cross and CERN. The Canton of Geneva, whose official name is the Republic and Canton of Geneva, is the successor of the Republic of Geneva. This article focuses on the history of the canton, which begins in 1815, and some of the context leading to modern borders and events after that date. For more detail on the history of Geneva prior to that year, refer to the history of the city of Geneva. Compared to other urban cantons of Switzerland (Zurich, Berne, Basel before it split, Fribourg, Lucerne), Geneva's geographical size is relatively small. This article explains the political context that led to the present-day borders. Geneva was controlled by the Allobroges, a rich and powerful Celtic tribe until 121 BC, when they were defeated by the Roman Empire. The city was then annexed to the Roman Empire in 121 BC and attached to Gallia Narbonensis province.
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