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Concept# Riemann sphere

Summary

In mathematics, the Riemann sphere, named after Bernhard Riemann, is a model of the extended complex plane: the complex plane plus one point at infinity. This extended plane represents the extended complex numbers, that is, the complex numbers plus a value \infty for infinity. With the Riemann model, the point \infty is near to very large numbers, just as the point 0 is near to very small numbers.
The extended complex numbers are useful in complex analysis because they allow for division by zero in some circumstances, in a way that makes expressions such as 1/0=\infty well-behaved. For example, any rational function on the complex plane can be extended to a holomorphic function on the Riemann sphere, with the poles of the rational function mapping to infinity. More generally, any meromorphic function can be thought of as a holomorphic function whose codomain is the Riemann sphere.
In geometry, the Riemann sphere is the prototy

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MATH-410: Riemann surfaces

This course is an introduction to the theory of Riemann surfaces. Riemann surfaces naturally appear is mathematics in many different ways: as a result of analytic continuation, as quotients of complex domains under discontinuous group actions, as algebraic curves.

MATH-101(en): Analysis I (English)

We study the fundamental concepts of analysis, calculus and the integral of real-valued functions of a real variable.

MATH-101(c): Analysis I

Étudier les concepts fondamentaux d'analyse et le calcul différentiel et intégral des fonctions réelles d'une variable.

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The goal of this document is to provide a generalmethod for the computational approach to the topology and geometry of compact Riemann surfaces. The approach is inspired by the paradigms of object oriented programming. Our methods allow us in particular to model, for numerical and computational purposes, a compact Riemann surface given by Fenchel-Nielsen parameters with respect to an arbitrary underlying graph, this in a uniformand robust manner. With this programming model established we proceed by proposing an algorithmthat produces explicit compact fundamental domains of compact Riemann surfaces as well as generators of the corresponding Fuchsian groups. In particular, we shall explain how onemay obtain convex geodesic canonical fundamental polygons. In a second part we explain in what manner simple closed geodesics are represented in our model. This will lead us to an algorithm that enumerates all these geodesics up to a given prescribed length. Finally, we shall briefly overview a number of possible applications of our method, such as finding the systoles of a Riemann surface, or drawing its Birman-Series set in a fundamental domain.

The objective of this PhD thesis is the approximate computation of the solutions of the Spectral Problem associated with the Laplace operator on a compact Riemann surface without boundaries. A Riemann surface can be seen as a gluing of portions of the Hyperbolic Plane made with suitable conditions to obtain a 2 dimensional manifold. The solutions of the Spectral Problem associated with the Laplace operator are to be understood as the eigenfunctions defined on the surface and their corresponding eigenvalues. This work is separated into two parts: the first part describes the method used to approximate the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions, the second focuses on the design of a program to compute these approximations. The approximation method is inspired by the Finite Element Method (FEM), in that it relies on the variational expression of the Spectral Problem and the definition of a finite subspace of functions in which the approximated eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are computed. However, it differs from the FEM in that it removes the euclidian basis of the FEM and is invariant under the isometries of the Hyperbolic Plane. To ful fill this objective, we begin by geodesically triangulating the surface as regularly as possible. This hyperbolic triangulation allows us to de ne the finite subspace of functions by using the concept of barycentric coordinates associated with each vertex of the triangulation (idea introduced by Whitney and taken up by Dodziuk). We then prove that the approximated solutions convergence to the exact ones when the diameter of the triangulation decreases, as well as the order of convergence. The program is a practical application of the theoretical work and allows the computation of the approximated eigenfunctions and eigenvalues.

We describe an injection from border-strip decompositions of certain diagrams to permutations. This allows us to provide enumeration results as well as q-analogues of enumeration formulas. Finally, we use this injection to prove a connection between the number of border-strip decompositions of the n x 2n rectangle and the Weil-Petersson volume of the moduli space of an n-punctured Riemann sphere.

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Riemann surface

In mathematics, particularly in complex analysis, a Riemann surface is a connected one-dimensional complex manifold. These surfaces were first studied by and are named after Bernhard Riemann. Rieman

Algebraic geometry

Algebraic geometry is a branch of mathematics which classically studies zeros of multivariate polynomials. Modern algebraic geometry is based on the use of abstract algebraic techniques, mainly fro

Projective space

In mathematics, the concept of a projective space originated from the visual effect of perspective, where parallel lines seem to meet at infinity. A projective space may thus be viewed as the extensi