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Concept# Jordan normal form

Summary

In linear algebra, a Jordan normal form, also known as a Jordan canonical form (JCF),
is an upper triangular matrix of a particular form called a Jordan matrix representing a linear operator on a finite-dimensional vector space with respect to some basis. Such a matrix has each non-zero off-diagonal entry equal to 1, immediately above the main diagonal (on the superdiagonal), and with identical diagonal entries to the left and below them.
Let V be a vector space over a field K. Then a basis with respect to which the matrix has the required form exists if and only if all eigenvalues of the matrix lie in K, or equivalently if the characteristic polynomial of the operator splits into linear factors over K. This condition is always satisfied if K is algebraically closed (for instance, if it is the field of complex numbers). The diagonal entries of the normal form are the eigenvalues (of the operator), and the number of times each eigenvalue occurs is called the algebraic multiplicit

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Let K be a finite extension of Q(p), let L/K be a finite abelian Galois extension of odd degree and let D-L be the valuation ring of L. We define A(L/K) to be the unique fractional D-L-ideal with square equal to the inverse different of L/K. For p an odd prime and L/Q(p) contained in certain cyclotomic extensions, Erez has described integral normal bases for A(L)/Q(p) that are self-dual with respect to the trace form. Assuming K/Q(p) to be unramified we generate odd abelian weakly ramified extensions of K using Lubin-Tate formal groups. We then use Dwork's exponential power series to explicitly construct self-dual integral normal bases for the square-root of the inverse different in these extensions. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2009For studying spectral properties of a non-normal matrix A ∈ Cn×n, information about its spectrum σ(A) alone is usually not enough. Effects of perturbations on σ(A) can be studied by computing ε-pseudospectra, that is the level-sets of the resolvent norm function g(z) = ‖(zI − A)−1‖2. The computation of ε-pseudospectra requires determining the smallest singular values σmin(zI − A) on for all z on a portion of the complex plane. In this work, we propose a reduced basis approach to pseudospectra computation that provides highly accurate estimates of pseudospectra in the region of interest. It incorporates the sampled singular vectors of zI − A for different values of z and implicitly exploits their smoothness properties. It provides rigorous upper and lower bounds for the pseudospectra in the region of interest. We also present a comparison of our approach to several existing approaches on a number of numerical examples, showing that our approach provides significant improvement in terms of computational time.

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