Concept

Flow battery

Summary
A flow battery, or redox flow battery (after reduction–oxidation), is a type of electrochemical cell where chemical energy is provided by two chemical components dissolved in liquids that are pumped through the system on separate sides of a membrane. Ion transfer inside the cell (accompanied by flow of electric current through an external circuit) occurs through the membrane while both liquids circulate in their own respective space. Cell voltage is chemically determined by the Nernst equation and ranges, in practical applications, from 1.0 to 2.43 volts. The energy capacity is a function of the electrolyte volume and the power is a function of the surface area of the electrodes. Various types of flow batteries have been demonstrated, including inorganic flow batteries and organic flow batteries. Under each category, flow battery design can be further classified into full flow batteries, semi-flow batteries, and membraneless flow batteries. The fundamental difference between convent
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