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Concept# XOR gate

Summary

XOR gate (sometimes EOR, or EXOR and pronounced as Exclusive OR) is a digital logic gate that gives a true (1 or HIGH) output when the number of true inputs is odd. An XOR gate implements an exclusive or () from mathematical logic; that is, a true output results if one, and only one, of the inputs to the gate is true. If both inputs are false (0/LOW) or both are true, a false output results. XOR represents the inequality function, i.e., the output is true if the inputs are not alike otherwise the output is false. A way to remember XOR is "must have one or the other but not both".
An XOR gate may serve as a "programmable inverter" in which one input determines whether to invert the other input, or to simply pass it along with no change. Hence it functions as a inverter (a NOT gate) which may be activated or deactivated by a switch.
XOR can also be viewed as addition modulo 2. As a result, XOR gates are used to implement binary addition in computers. A half adder consists of an XOR gate and an AND gate. The gate is also used in subtractors and comparators.
The algebraic expressions or or all represent the XOR gate with inputs A and B. The behavior of XOR is summarized in the truth table shown on the right.
There are three schematic symbols for XOR gates: the traditional ANSI and DIN symbols and the IEC symbol. In some cases, the DIN symbol is used with ⊕ instead of ≢. For more information see Logic Gate Symbols.
The "=1" on the IEC symbol indicates that the output is activated by only one active input.
The logic symbols ⊕, Jpq, and ⊻ can be used to denote an XOR operation in algebraic expressions.
C-like languages use the caret symbol ^ to denote bitwise XOR. (Note that the caret does not denote logical conjunction (AND) in these languages, despite the similarity of symbol.)
The XOR gate is most commonly implemented using MOSFETs circuits. Some of those implementations include:
The Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) implementation of the XOR gate.

Official source

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Ontological neighbourhood

XNOR gate

The XNOR gate (sometimes ENOR, EXNOR or NXOR and pronounced as Exclusive NOR) is a digital logic gate whose function is the logical complement of the Exclusive OR (XOR) gate. It is equivalent to the logical connective () from mathematical logic, also known as the material biconditional. The two-input version implements logical equality, behaving according to the truth table to the right, and hence the gate is sometimes called an "equivalence gate". A high output (1) results if both of the inputs to the gate are the same.

NOR gate

The NOR gate is a digital logic gate that implements logical NOR - it behaves according to the truth table to the right. A HIGH output (1) results if both the inputs to the gate are LOW (0); if one or both input is HIGH (1), a LOW output (0) results. NOR is the result of the negation of the OR operator. It can also in some senses be seen as the inverse of an AND gate. NOR is a functionally complete operation—NOR gates can be combined to generate any other logical function. It shares this property with the NAND gate.

Boolean algebra

In mathematics and mathematical logic, Boolean algebra is a branch of algebra. It differs from elementary algebra in two ways. First, the values of the variables are the truth values true and false, usually denoted 1 and 0, whereas in elementary algebra the values of the variables are numbers. Second, Boolean algebra uses logical operators such as conjunction (and) denoted as ∧, disjunction (or) denoted as ∨, and the negation (not) denoted as ¬.

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