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Concept# Moduli space

Summary

In mathematics, in particular algebraic geometry, a moduli space is a geometric space (usually a scheme or an algebraic stack) whose points represent algebro-geometric objects of some fixed kind, or isomorphism classes of such objects. Such spaces frequently arise as solutions to classification problems: If one can show that a collection of interesting objects (e.g., the smooth algebraic curves of a fixed genus) can be given the structure of a geometric space, then one can parametrize such objects by introducing coordinates on the resulting space. In this context, the term "modulus" is used synonymously with "parameter"; moduli spaces were first understood as spaces of parameters rather than as spaces of objects. A variant of moduli spaces is formal moduli. Bernhard Riemann first used the term "moduli" in 1857.
Moduli spaces are spaces of solutions of geometric classification problems. That is, the points of a moduli space correspond to solutions of geometric problems. Here different solutions are identified if they are isomorphic (that is, geometrically the same). Moduli spaces can be thought of as giving a universal space of parameters for the problem. For example, consider the problem of finding all circles in the Euclidean plane up to congruence. Any circle can be described uniquely by giving three points, but many different sets of three points give the same circle: the correspondence is many-to-one. However, circles are uniquely parameterized by giving their center and radius: this is two real parameters and one positive real parameter. Since we are only interested in circles "up to congruence", we identify circles having different centers but the same radius, and so the radius alone suffices to parameterize the set of interest. The moduli space is, therefore, the positive real numbers.
Moduli spaces often carry natural geometric and topological structures as well. In the example of circles, for instance, the moduli space is not just an abstract set, but the absolute value of the difference of the radii defines a metric for determining when two circles are "close".

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Scheme (mathematics)

In mathematics, a scheme is a mathematical structure that enlarges the notion of algebraic variety in several ways, such as taking account of multiplicities (the equations x = 0 and x2 = 0 define the same algebraic variety but different schemes) and allowing "varieties" defined over any commutative ring (for example, Fermat curves are defined over the integers). Scheme theory was introduced by Alexander Grothendieck in 1960 in his treatise "Éléments de géométrie algébrique"; one of its aims was developing the formalism needed to solve deep problems of algebraic geometry, such as the Weil conjectures (the last of which was proved by Pierre Deligne).

Moduli space

In mathematics, in particular algebraic geometry, a moduli space is a geometric space (usually a scheme or an algebraic stack) whose points represent algebro-geometric objects of some fixed kind, or isomorphism classes of such objects. Such spaces frequently arise as solutions to classification problems: If one can show that a collection of interesting objects (e.g., the smooth algebraic curves of a fixed genus) can be given the structure of a geometric space, then one can parametrize such objects by introducing coordinates on the resulting space.

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In mathematics, particularly in algebraic geometry, complex analysis and algebraic number theory, an abelian variety is a projective algebraic variety that is also an algebraic group, i.e., has a group law that can be defined by regular functions. Abelian varieties are at the same time among the most studied objects in algebraic geometry and indispensable tools for much research on other topics in algebraic geometry and number theory. An abelian variety can be defined by equations having coefficients in any field; the variety is then said to be defined over that field.

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