**Are you an EPFL student looking for a semester project?**

Work with us on data science and visualisation projects, and deploy your project as an app on top of GraphSearch.

Concept# Eddy (fluid dynamics)

Summary

In fluid dynamics, an eddy is the swirling of a fluid and the reverse current created when the fluid is in a turbulent flow regime. The moving fluid creates a space devoid of downstream-flowing fluid on the downstream side of the object. Fluid behind the obstacle flows into the void creating a swirl of fluid on each edge of the obstacle, followed by a short reverse flow of fluid behind the obstacle flowing upstream, toward the back of the obstacle. This phenomenon is naturally observed behind large emergent rocks in swift-flowing rivers.
An eddy is a movement of fluid that deviates from the general flow of the fluid. An example for an eddy is a vortex which produces such deviation. However, there are other types of eddies that are not simple vortices. For example, a Rossby wave is an eddy which is an undulation that is a deviation from mean flow, but does not have the local closed streamlines of a vortex.
The propensity of a fluid to swirl is used to promote good fuel/air mixing in internal combustion engines.
In fluid mechanics and transport phenomena, an eddy is not a property of the fluid, but a violent swirling motion caused by the position and direction of turbulent flow.
In 1883, scientist Osborne Reynolds conducted a fluid dynamics experiment involving water and dye, where he adjusted the velocities of the fluids and observed the transition from laminar to turbulent flow, characterized by the formation of eddies and vortices. Turbulent flow is defined as the flow in which the system's inertial forces are dominant over the viscous forces. This phenomenon is described by Reynolds number, a unit-less number used to determine when turbulent flow will occur. Conceptually, the Reynolds number is the ratio between inertial forces and viscous forces.
The general form for the Reynolds number flowing through a tube of radius r (or diameter d):
where v is the velocity of the fluid, ρ is its density, r is the radius of the tube, and μ is the viscosity of the fluid.

Official source

This page is automatically generated and may contain information that is not correct, complete, up-to-date, or relevant to your search query. The same applies to every other page on this website. Please make sure to verify the information with EPFL's official sources.

Related publications (353)

Related people (52)

Related units (13)

Related concepts (6)

Related courses (24)

Related lectures (271)

Reynolds number

In fluid mechanics, the Reynolds number (Re) is a dimensionless quantity that helps predict fluid flow patterns in different situations by measuring the ratio between inertial and viscous forces. At low Reynolds numbers, flows tend to be dominated by laminar (sheet-like) flow, while at high Reynolds numbers, flows tend to be turbulent. The turbulence results from differences in the fluid's speed and direction, which may sometimes intersect or even move counter to the overall direction of the flow (eddy currents).

Turbulence

In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is fluid motion characterized by chaotic changes in pressure and flow velocity. It is in contrast to a laminar flow, which occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers, with no disruption between those layers. Turbulence is commonly observed in everyday phenomena such as surf, fast flowing rivers, billowing storm clouds, or smoke from a chimney, and most fluid flows occurring in nature or created in engineering applications are turbulent.

Vortex

In fluid dynamics, a vortex (: vortices or vortexes) is a region in a fluid in which the flow revolves around an axis line, which may be straight or curved. Vortices form in stirred fluids, and may be observed in smoke rings, whirlpools in the wake of a boat, and the winds surrounding a tropical cyclone, tornado or dust devil. Vortices are a major component of turbulent flow. The distribution of velocity, vorticity (the curl of the flow velocity), as well as the concept of circulation are used to characterise vortices.

Boundary Layers: Recap and Effects on Drag and Lift

Covers the importance of boundary layers, viscosity effects on drag and lift.

Two-Dimensional Ideal Gas Distribution

Explores the derivation of a two-dimensional ideal gas distribution and the deposition of gas molecules on a rotating drum.

Poiseuille & Resistance

Explores Poiseuille's law, pressure-velocity relation, wall shear stress, resistances, Bernoulli's equation, and turbulence in fluid dynamics.

This course covers fundamentals of heat transfer and applications to practical problems. Emphasis will be on developing a physical and analytical understanding of conductive, convective, and radiative

L'étudiant sera capable de :

- Définir et décrire les principales OpUnit.
- Elaborer l'analyse critique d'une OpUnit, optimiser son fonctionnement selon les contraintes.
- Emettre des recommandations

Nondimensionalized Navier-Stokes equations result in a great variety of models (Stokes, Lubrication, Euler, Potential) depending on the Reynolds number. The concept of boundary layer enables us then t

The thesis is dedicated to the study of two main partial differential equations (PDEs) in fluid dynamics: the Navier-Stokes equations, which describe the motion of incompressible fluids, and the transport equation with divergence-free velocity fields, whic ...

, ,

A new statistical wake meandering (SWM) model is proposed that improves on existing models in the literature. Compared to the existing SWM models, the proposed model has a closed description that does not require simulations to create look-up tables while ...

Fernando Porté Agel, Peter Andreas Brugger, Corey Dean Markfort

Predictions of the dynamic wake meandering model (DWMM) were compared to flow measurements of a scanning Doppler lidar mounted on the nacelle of a utility-scale wind turbine. We observed that the wake meandering strength of the DWMM agrees better with the ...

2024