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Concept# Bounded set

Summary

In mathematical analysis and related areas of mathematics, a set is called bounded if it is, in a certain sense, of finite measure. Conversely, a set which is not bounded is called unbounded. The word "bounded" makes no sense in a general topological space without a corresponding metric.
Boundary is a distinct concept: for example, a circle in isolation is a boundaryless bounded set, while the half plane is unbounded yet has a boundary.
A bounded set is not necessarily a closed set and vice versa. For example, a subset S of a 2-dimensional real space R2 constrained by two parabolic curves x2 + 1 and x2 - 1 defined in a Cartesian coordinate system is closed by the curves but not bounded (so unbounded).
A set S of real numbers is called bounded from above if there exists some real number k (not necessarily in S) such that k ≥ s for all s in S. The number k is called an upper bound of S. The terms bounded from below and lower bound are similarly defined.
A set S is bounded if it has both upper and lower bounds. Therefore, a set of real numbers is bounded if it is contained in a finite interval.
A subset S of a metric space (M, d) is bounded if there exists r > 0 such that for all s and t in S, we have d(s, t) < r. The metric space (M, d) is a bounded metric space (or d is a bounded metric) if M is bounded as a subset of itself.
Total boundedness implies boundedness. For subsets of Rn the two are equivalent.
A metric space is compact if and only if it is complete and totally bounded.
A subset of Euclidean space Rn is compact if and only if it is closed and bounded. This is also called the Heine-Borel theorem.
Bounded set (topological vector space)
In topological vector spaces, a different definition for bounded sets exists which is sometimes called von Neumann boundedness. If the topology of the topological vector space is induced by a metric which is homogeneous, as in the case of a metric induced by the norm of normed vector spaces, then the two definitions coincide.
A set of real numbers is bounded if and only if it has an upper and lower bound.

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