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Concept# Sylow theorems

Summary

In mathematics, specifically in the field of finite group theory, the Sylow theorems are a collection of theorems named after the Norwegian mathematician Peter Ludwig Sylow that give detailed information about the number of subgroups of fixed order that a given finite group contains. The Sylow theorems form a fundamental part of finite group theory and have very important applications in the classification of finite simple groups.
For a prime number , a Sylow p-subgroup (sometimes p-Sylow subgroup) of a group is a maximal -subgroup of , i.e., a subgroup of that is a p-group (meaning its cardinality is a power of or equivalently, the order of every group element is a power of ) that is not a proper subgroup of any other -subgroup of . The set of all Sylow -subgroups for a given prime is sometimes written .
The Sylow theorems assert a partial converse to Lagrange's theorem. Lagrange's theorem states that for any finite group the order (number of elements) of every subgroup of divides the order of . The Sylow theorems state that for every prime factor of the order of a finite group , there exists a Sylow -subgroup of of order , the highest power of that divides the order of . Moreover, every subgroup of order is a Sylow -subgroup of , and the Sylow -subgroups of a group (for a given prime ) are conjugate to each other. Furthermore, the number of Sylow -subgroups of a group for a given prime is congruent to 1 (mod ).
The Sylow theorems are a powerful statement about the structure of groups in general, but are also powerful in applications of finite group theory. This is because they give a method for using the prime decomposition of the cardinality of a finite group to give statements about the structure of its subgroups: essentially, it gives a technique to transport basic number-theoretic information about a group to its group structure. From this observation, classifying finite groups becomes a game of finding which combinations/constructions of groups of smaller order can be applied to construct a group.

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Finite group

In abstract algebra, a finite group is a group whose underlying set is finite. Finite groups often arise when considering symmetry of mathematical or physical objects, when those objects admit just a finite number of structure-preserving transformations. Important examples of finite groups include cyclic groups and permutation groups. The study of finite groups has been an integral part of group theory since it arose in the 19th century.

Sylow theorems

In mathematics, specifically in the field of finite group theory, the Sylow theorems are a collection of theorems named after the Norwegian mathematician Peter Ludwig Sylow that give detailed information about the number of subgroups of fixed order that a given finite group contains. The Sylow theorems form a fundamental part of finite group theory and have very important applications in the classification of finite simple groups. For a prime number , a Sylow p-subgroup (sometimes p-Sylow subgroup) of a group is a maximal -subgroup of , i.

P-group

In mathematics, specifically group theory, given a prime number p, a p-group is a group in which the order of every element is a power of p. That is, for each element g of a p-group G, there exists a nonnegative integer n such that the product of pn copies of g, and not fewer, is equal to the identity element. The orders of different elements may be different powers of p. Abelian p-groups are also called p-primary or simply primary. A finite group is a p-group if and only if its order (the number of its elements) is a power of p.

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