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Concept# Unique factorization domain

Summary

In mathematics, a unique factorization domain (UFD) (also sometimes called a factorial ring following the terminology of Bourbaki) is a ring in which a statement analogous to the fundamental theorem of arithmetic holds. Specifically, a UFD is an integral domain (a nontrivial commutative ring in which the product of any two non-zero elements is non-zero) in which every non-zero non-unit element can be written as a product of prime elements (or irreducible elements), uniquely up to order and units.
Important examples of UFDs are the integers and polynomial rings in one or more variables with coefficients coming from the integers or from a field.
Unique factorization domains appear in the following chain of class inclusions:
Definition
Formally, a unique factorization domain is defined to be an integral domain R in which every non-zero element x of R can be written as a product (an empty product if x is a unit) of irreducible elements pi of R and a unit u:
:x = u p1 p2 ⋅⋅

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