**Are you an EPFL student looking for a semester project?**

Work with us on data science and visualisation projects, and deploy your project as an app on top of GraphSearch.

Concept# Effective field theory

Summary

In physics, an effective field theory is a type of approximation, or effective theory, for an underlying physical theory, such as a quantum field theory or a statistical mechanics model. An effective field theory includes the appropriate degrees of freedom to describe physical phenomena occurring at a chosen length scale or energy scale, while ignoring substructure and degrees of freedom at shorter distances (or, equivalently, at higher energies). Intuitively, one averages over the behavior of the underlying theory at shorter length scales to derive what is hoped to be a simplified model at longer length scales. Effective field theories typically work best when there is a large separation between length scale of interest and the length scale of the underlying dynamics. Effective field theories have found use in particle physics, statistical mechanics, condensed matter physics, general relativity, and hydrodynamics. They simplify calculations, and allow treatment of dissipation and rad

Official source

This page is automatically generated and may contain information that is not correct, complete, up-to-date, or relevant to your search query. The same applies to every other page on this website. Please make sure to verify the information with EPFL's official sources.

Related publications

Loading

Related people

Loading

Related units

Loading

Related concepts

Loading

Related courses

Loading

Related lectures

Loading

Related publications (87)

Loading

Loading

Loading

Related people (33)

Related concepts (49)

Quantum field theory

In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is a theoretical framework that combines classical field theory, special relativity, and quantum mechanics. QFT is used in particle physics to cons

General relativity

General relativity, also known as the general theory of relativity and Einstein's theory of gravity, is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and is the current des

Quantum chromodynamics

In theoretical physics, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction between quarks mediated by gluons. Quarks are fundamental particles that make up composite hadrons such a

Related units (27)

Related courses (22)

PHYS-739: Conformal Field theory and Gravity

This course is an introduction to the non-perturbative bootstrap approach to Conformal Field Theory and to the Gauge/Gravity duality, emphasizing the fruitful interplay between these two ideas.

PHYS-702: Advanced Quantum Field Theory

The course builds on the two previous courses on the subject. The main subject is the study of quantum field theories at the loop level. The course introduces the concept of loop divergences and renormalization. Non abelian gauge theories are also discussed in depth.

PHYS-432: Quantum field theory II

The goal of the course is to introduce relativistic quantum field theory as the conceptual and mathematical framework describing fundamental interactions.

Angelo Esposito, Emma Michèle Ginette Geoffray

We consider a model of sub-GeV dark matter whose interaction with the Standard Model is mediated by a new vector boson (the dark photon) which couples kinetically to the photon. We describe the possibility of constraining such a model using a superfluid He-4 detector, by means of an effective theory for the description of the superfluid phonon. We find that such a detector could provide bounds that are competitive with other direct detection experiments only for ultralight vector mediator, in agreement with previous studies. As a byproduct we also present, for the first time, the low-energy effective field theory for the interaction between photons and phonons. (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.

Related lectures (19)

Angelo Esposito, Emma Michèle Ginette Geoffray

We present a relativistic effective field theory for the interaction between acoustic and gapped phonons in the limit of a small gap. We show that, while the former are the Goldstone modes associated with the spontaneous breaking of spacetime symmetries, the latter are pseudo-Goldstones associated with some (small) explicit breaking. We hence dub them "pseudoacoustic" phonons. In this first investigation, we build our effective theory for the cases of one and two spatial dimensions, two atomic species, and assuming large distance isotropy. As an illustrative example, we show how the theory can be applied to compute the total lifetime of both acoustic and pseudoacoustic phonons. This construction can find applications that range from the physics of bilayer graphene to sub-GeV dark matter detectors.

This thesis presents a general discussion of the Composite Higgs scenario of Electro-Weak Symmetry Breaking (EWSB). We start by reviewing the Standard Model of Electro-Weak interaction, discussing its experimental tests and conceptual pitfalls. Emphasis is given to the effective field theory point of view. In particular, the inherent tension related to the stability of the Electro-Weak scale motivates us to explore the possibility of having the Higgs field emerging as a Nambu-Goldstone boson from a new strongly coupled sector. Our construction is to a large extent inspired by the picture of the long range dynamics of QCD. The main ingredients are the symmetry of the UV theory, the pattern of its spontaneous breakdown and the sources of explicit breaking. In QCD, the latter are provided by the light quark masses and by the electromagnetic interaction. In Composite Higgs models, the most relevant symmetry breaking couplings are those related to the generation of the third family quark Yukawas through partial compositeness. They generate a potential for the Higgs and thus trigger EWSB. The constraints on the scenario are exposed, with a particular emphasis on the composite Two Higgs Doublet Model (THDM). While a residual SO(4) symmetry is sufficient to ensure a realistic phenomenology in presence of a single composite Higgs doublet, an extended Higgs sector needs more symmetries. For two doublets we show how either CP or a ℤ2 symmetry can play this role and construct a model for each realisation relying on the SO(6)/SO(4) × SO(2) coset. Finally, we discuss the phenomenology of this scenario. In particular, we present de differences between an elementary and a composite THDM. We also conclude that composite fermions associated to the third family quarks seem to be the most promising experimental handles for these models. We discuss their discovery range at the LHC, and the possibility of measuring the structure of their couplings. This knowledge would allow important insight into the strong dynamics.