Concept

# Linearity

Summary
In mathematics, the term linear is used in two distinct senses for two different properties:
• linearity of a function (or mapping );
• linearity of a polynomial. An example of a linear function is the function defined by f(x)=(ax,bx) that maps the real line to a line in the Euclidean plane R2 that passes through the origin. An example of a linear polynomial in the variables X, Y and Z is aX+bY+cZ+d.
Linearity of a mapping is closely related to proportionality. Examples in physics include the linear relationship of voltage and current in an electrical conductor (Ohm's law), and the relationship of mass and weight. By contrast, more complicated relationships, such as between velocity and kinetic energy, are nonlinear. Generalized for functions in more than one dimension, linearity means the property of a function of being compatible with addition and scaling, also known as the superposition principle. Linearity of a
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