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Publication# On Von Karman Modeling For Turbulent Flow Near A Wall

Abstract

Mixing-length models are often used by engineers in order to take into account turbulence phenomena in a flow. This kind of model is obtained by adding a turbulent viscosity to the laminar one in Navier-Stokes equations. When the flow is confined between two close walls, von Karman's model consists of adding a viscosity which depends on the rate of strain multiplied by the square of distance to the wall. In this short paper, we present a mathematical analysis of such modeling. In particular, we explain why von Karman's model is numerically ill-conditioned when using a finite element method with a small laminar viscosity. Details of analysis can be found in [1], [2].

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Laminar flow

In fluid dynamics, laminar flow (ˈlæmənər) is characterized by fluid particles following smooth paths in layers, with each layer moving smoothly past the adjacent layers with little or no mixing. At low velocities, the fluid tends to flow without lateral mixing, and adjacent layers slide past one another like playing cards. There are no cross-currents perpendicular to the direction of flow, nor eddies or swirls of fluids. In laminar flow, the motion of the particles of the fluid is very orderly with particles close to a solid surface moving in straight lines parallel to that surface.

Turbulence

In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is fluid motion characterized by chaotic changes in pressure and flow velocity. It is in contrast to a laminar flow, which occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers, with no disruption between those layers. Turbulence is commonly observed in everyday phenomena such as surf, fast flowing rivers, billowing storm clouds, or smoke from a chimney, and most fluid flows occurring in nature or created in engineering applications are turbulent.

Boundary layer

In physics and fluid mechanics, a boundary layer is the thin layer of fluid in the immediate vicinity of a bounding surface formed by the fluid flowing along the surface. The fluid's interaction with the wall induces a no-slip boundary condition (zero velocity at the wall). The flow velocity then monotonically increases above the surface until it returns to the bulk flow velocity. The thin layer consisting of fluid whose velocity has not yet returned to the bulk flow velocity is called the velocity boundary layer.

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