**Êtes-vous un étudiant de l'EPFL à la recherche d'un projet de semestre?**

Travaillez avec nous sur des projets en science des données et en visualisation, et déployez votre projet sous forme d'application sur GraphSearch.

Concept# Pan de bois

Résumé

Le pan de bois est un ouvrage de charpenterie composé de sablières hautes et basses, de poteaux de décharges et de tournisses formant un mur de bois. Les pans de bois intégraient des colombages, colombes et colombelles, dans la maison à colombages. L’exactitude lexicale et, surtout, historique, amène à préciser que l’appellation actuelle « maison à colombages » se disait autrefois à pan de bois.
Le pan de bois peut être apparent ou caché par un bardage, un clayonnage.
Usage
Ce moyen avait l'avantage de permettre des superpositions d'étages en encorbellement, afin de laisser un passage assez large sur la voie publique et de gagner de la place dans les étages supérieurs. Selon Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, le pan de bois était « économique et sain, car, à épaisseur égale, un pan de bois garantit mieux les habitants d'une maison des variations de la température extérieure qu'un mur de brique ou de pierre. »
vignette|Le château du Pirou et des maisons à pan de bois à Thiers en Auve

Source officielle

Cette page est générée automatiquement et peut contenir des informations qui ne sont pas correctes, complètes, à jour ou pertinentes par rapport à votre recherche. Il en va de même pour toutes les autres pages de ce site. Veillez à vérifier les informations auprès des sources officielles de l'EPFL.

Publications associées

Chargement

Personnes associées

Chargement

Unités associées

Chargement

Concepts associés

Chargement

Cours associés

Chargement

Séances de cours associées

Chargement

Personnes associées (19)

Publications associées (77)

Chargement

Chargement

Chargement

Séances de cours associées (22)

Concepts associés (27)

Bois d'œuvre

thumb|upright=1.5|Structure construite en bois.
Le bois est un matériau de construction employé dans la construction des bâtiments.
Définitions
Terminologie
thumb|upright=1.5|P

Framing (construction)

Framing, in construction, is the fitting together of pieces to give a structure support and shape. Framing materials are usually wood, engineered wood, or structural steel. The alternative to frame

Carpentry

Carpentry is a skilled trade and a craft in which the primary work performed is the cutting, shaping and installation of building materials during the construction of buildings, ships, timber br

Unités associées (5)

Cours associés (18)

CIVIL-510: Quantitative imaging for engineers

First 2 courses are Tuesday 16-19h!This course will arm students with knowledge of different imaging techniques for practical measurements in many different fields of civil engineering. Modalities will range from satellite and drone imaging all the way down to x-ray microscopy with practical session

AR-241: Building technology III

Ce cours traite des divers domaines techniques intervenant dans la conception et la réalisation d'un bâtiment, soit : physique du bâtiment, structures, matériaux, construction et installations techniques; ceci dans une approche globale et transversale.

CIVIL-122: Structures I

Le cours présente les bases du comportement des structures, de la détermination des efforts qui y agissent et les principes de leur dimensionnement. Le cours est basé sur la résolution des efforts par la statique graphique.

This poster provides an overview of the challenges and achievements related to current research led at the Laboratory for Timber Constructions (IBOIS, EPFL) on the robotic assembly of Integrally-Attached Timber Plate Structures (IATPS). The poster is divided into two columns corresponding to the two main parts of the research. On the left, the “Computational Design” part summarizes the key points of the development of Manis – a collaborative design tool for IATPS that integrates fabrication and assembly constraints as well as feedback on the structural performance. On the right, the “Robotic construction” part addresses the experiments carried out to determine an optimal shape for timber joints so that they can be inserted with a robotic arm with a minimum of tolerance. Ultimately, the research aims to provide a fully automated workflow from design to construction in order to foster the adoption of this all-wood construction system by AEC stakeholders.

2022The construction principles of "Timber-Glass-Composite-Girders" demand practical and theoretical research to ensure reliable designs. Toward this objective the mathematical description of load-bearing and the non-rigid bond is the subject of this work, i.e. to define the contributing parameters for the design of these girders. The non-rigid-bond of the adhesive joint is of great importance because of its influence on the load-bearing of the system as a whole. The loading of girders is dominated by permanent forces thus leading to the obligation of knowing the long-term behaviour of the system and its components. The definition of the characteristic values, taking into account the long-term load-bearing, is an intrinsic part of this investigation. It can be shown that the load-bearing of the girders depends on the fracture of the glass panes. The properties of glass-fractures are a function of the residual internal prestresses due to the heat-strengthening of the panes. The load-bearing, particularly the post-cracked behaviour, changes with respect to the intensity of these internal prestresses. The timber is able to reinforce the cracked glass, leading to a ductile load-bearing behaviour as in the girders, with a dependency upon the size of the remaining fractures. A model based on the differential equations of the non-rigid bond is defined in order to calculate the loading-peaks of the adhesive joint and the material loading itself. The characteristic values of the non-rigid bond, such as the number and distances between cracks and the load introducing length, were evaluated in tests on composite slabs and small scale girders. The existing calculation models which take into account non-rigid bonding were modified to adapt the influence of the width and thickness of the adhesive joint. In order to calculate the stressing of the material the existing calculation models were adapted to calculate the post-cracked situation. The load-bearing behaviour of glass-panes bent with respect to its strong neutral axis needs other safety-considerations than panes, bent off their plane. It is shown that the existing safety considerations subject to the use of glass can not easily be adapted onto the composite girders. The bending with respect to the strong neutral axis and the reinforcement of the glass of the timber demands a different hypothesis to adapt the fractural mechanical analysis and to establish a safe limit conception. This is part of the performed research of this document. The following descriptions present briefly the obtained results: Depending on the quality of the glass (residual stresses due to heat-strengthening, e.g. annealed glass, heat-strengthened glass, fully tempered glass), the ductility and the mode of failure of the girders does change. As a result of its failure mode, annealed glass without internal prestresses offers the highest remaining load-carrying potential after the first crack has appeared. This ductility and thus the structural safety, diminishes with an increasing degree of internal prestressing due to thermal treatment. Heat-strengthened glass (with various degrees of prestressing, various residual stresses) shows a decrease in remaining load-carrying capacity with an increasing degree of prestressing until it fails in a brittle mode as fully toughened glass does. This has to be well considered in respect to safety considerations. Girders with panes made of glass having internal residual stresses due to heat strengthening below 50N/mm2 are considered to collapse ductily, residual stresses bigger than 50N/mm2 cause brittle failure. The effective stiffness of the girders decreases under permanent loads in function of the bondage. Both, timber and adhesive take part in this decrease; the influence of both of the involved materials has been defined. Since the design of conventional glass constructions which uses the concept of principle stresses cannot be adapted, unidirectional shear stresses had to be determined for the shear strength of glass, which is defined as 25N/mm2 for annealed glass. The characteristic values of the adhesive to define the non-rigid bonds have been determined, likewise the influence of the width and thickness of the adhesive joint. The load introducing length, the distances between cracks and the number of cracks are defined with tests on composite slabs. A model to describe the theoretical bond with the defined parameters based on the differential equations was developed. This model allows the calculation of the material stressing at the load introduction and on both sides of a crack. To calculate the stressing of glass and timber existing calculation models which take into account non-rigid bonding were modified to adapt the influence of the width and thickness of the adhesive joint. In order to calculate the stressing of the material the existing calculation models were adapted to calculate the post-cracked situation. The safety factors for the influences of the glass surface, environmental conditions, load duration and the parameters of fracture mechanical analysis as developed as they are known for semi-probabilistic safety concepts for glass constructions cannot easily be adopted. The bending with respect to the strong neutral axis demands a different hypothesis in order to adapt the fractural mechanical analysis and to develop the safety parameters. For the reliable design of timber-glass-composite-girders a contribution to the appropriate use of probabilistic, semi-probabilistic and deterministic safety concepts are given. A realised construction (Hotel "Palafitte" in Monruz (NE)) shows an example and the experience made in designing girders.

Julien Gamerro, Pierre Latteur, Nicolas Henry P Rogeau, Yves Weinand

This research investigates the robotic assembly of timber structures connected by wood–wood connections. As the digitization of the timber construction sector progresses, digital tools, such as industrial robotic arms and Computer Numerical Control machines, are becoming increasingly accessible. The new-found ease with which wood can be processed stimulates a renewed interest in traditional joinery, where pieces are simply interlocked instead of being connected by additional metallic parts. Previous research established a computational workflow for the robotic assembly of timber plate structures connected by wood–wood connections. This paper focuses on determining the physical conditions that allow inserting through-tenon joints with a robot. The main challenge lies in minimizing the clearance between the tenon and the mortise in order to keep the connections as tight as possible. An experimental protocol has, therefore, been developed to quantitatively assess the performance of the insertion according to different geometric parameters. Robotic insertion tests have been carried out on over 50 samples of 39 mm Laminated Veneer Lumber. Results showed the interest of tapering the joint with a 5 degrees angle, in addition to introducing an offset of 0.05 mm, to minimize friction forces during the insertion. This configuration was confirmed by successfully assembling a 2,50 m long box girder with the same parameters.

2022