A student is a person enrolled in a school or other educational institution. In the United Kingdom and most commonwealth countries, a "student" attends a secondary school or higher (e.g., college or university); those in primary or elementary schools are "pupils". Africa Nigeria In Nigeria, education is classified into four systems known as a 6-3-3-4 system of education. It implies six years in primary school, three years in junior secondary, three years in senior secondary and four years in the university. However, the number of years to be spent in university is mostly determined by the course of study. Some courses have longer study lengths than others. Those in primary school are often referred to as pupils. Those in university, as well as those in secondary school, are referred to as students. The Nigerian system of education also has other recognized categories like the polytechnics and colleges of education. The Polytechnic gives out National Diploma and
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Related publications (100)

Ambient Awareness for the Orchestration of Collaborative Problem Solving

Hamed Seiied Alavi

Classroom orchestration refers to the teacher's (or tutor's) responsibility to identify and manage the evolving learning opportunities and constraints, in real-time. We study the use of computer technology to support this orchestration task in a multi-constraint pedagogical practice: "recitation section". In university teaching, recitation sections complement lecture sessions by providing an opportunity for students to practice the course material in teams, under the supervision of the tutors. We start by analyzing recitation sections as they are held in our university and identify the causes of their inefficiencies. We show that lack of information on the progress and the current status of the students makes the orchestration task difficult for the tutors, and on the students' side results in a hesitation to interact with their peers. Thus, we propose an ambient awareness tool that makes this information available. Our tool, called Lantern, is an interactive lamp which is placed on each group's table that shows its status, namely the specific exercise that the group is currently working on, if assistance is needed, and, if so, for how long this assistance has been needed. Several questions are raised about how Lantern can facilitate the orchestration task and increase collaboration within and between teams. To answer these questions, we describe two user studies. In the first study, we show how Lantern can help the tutors share their resources between teams, enhance students' productivity, increase collaboration among students, and improve the structure of inter-team communication. In the second study, we compare Lantern with another tool, Shelf, which provides the same information but on a single screen in front of the classroom. It appears that Shelf, instead of encouraging collaboration, creates a competitive atmosphere among students. We relate the differences between Lantern and Shelf as to how they position the displayed information in the classroom space. In a second version of Lantern, the lamps are equipped with a wireless communication module that connects them to a server. The server receives every user action and controls the lamps by specifying what should be displayed on each of them. This allows for flexibility both in terms of the variety of the learning scripts that Lantern can implement and also in terms of integration with other technologies inside and outside of the classroom. Finally, we explore the possibilities of using Lantern in other learning contexts, such as high school courses, training workshops, or open learning spaces.

Camera-based estimation of student's attention in class

Mirko Raca

Two essential elements of classroom lecturing are the teacher and the students. This human core can easily be lost in the overwhelming list of technological supplements aimed at improving the teaching/learning experience. We start from the question of whether we can formulate a technological intervention around the human connection, and find indicators which would tell us when the teacher is not reaching the audience. Our approach is based on principles of unobtrusive measurements and social signal processing. Our assumption is that students with different levels of attention will display different non-verbal behaviour during the lecture. Inspired by information theory, we formulated a theoretical background for our assumptions around the idea of synchronization between the sender and receiver, and between several receivers focused on the same sender. Based on this foundation we present a novel set of behaviour metrics as the main contribution. By using a camera-based system to observe lectures, we recorded an extensive dataset in order to verify our assumptions. In our first study on motion, we found that differences in attention are manifested on the level of audience movement synchronization. We formulated the measure of ``motion lag'' based on the idea that attentive students would have a common behaviour pattern. For our second set of metrics we explored ways to substitute intrusive eye-tracking equipment in order to record gaze information of the entire audience. To achieve this we conducted an experiment on the relationship between head orientation and gaze direction. Based on acquired results we formulated an improved model of gaze uncertainty than the ones currently used in similar studies. In combination with improvements on head detection and pose estimation, we extracted measures of audience head and gaze behaviour from our remote recording system. From the collected data we found that synchronization between student's head orientation and teacher's motion serves as a reliable indicator of the attentiveness of students. To illustrate the predictive power of our features, a supervised-learning model was trained achieving satisfactory results at predicting student's attention.

A Digital Platform connecting Academia and Small Businesses: An opportunity for Knowledge Management Experiments

Quentin Adrien Cavillier

Digital transformation is one of the biggest phenomena of this decade. One enabler of this revolution was cloud computing. Today, software engineers can deliver software as a service (SaaS), which is accessible to users through the Internet. Slack, Shopify, and Dropbox are examples of successful SaaS. We are experiencing an emergence of numerous small web applications with easy-to-use features for specific domains such as project management, accounting, resources management, customer relationships, and so forth. Thus, SaaS has been recognised as particularly well suited for the digital journey of small enterprises. However, surveys conducted by governmental agencies reveal a low adoption rate of SaaS by small enterprises in traditional sectors such as construction, services, and dealership. Previous studies have highlighted a lack of top management support, a weak relative advantage perceived, and a lack of knowledge as the key reasons for this low level of adoption. Whilst academic research defines these critical factors, it has not found potential solutions to mitigate them. Thus, this thesis presents two exploratory studies to enhance the adoption of digital practices by small traditional enterprises (STEs). A first study explored the value of leading collaborative projects between students and STEs about the assessment of SaaS solutions. A secondary objective of this initiative was the design of a platform acting as an open innovation platform. A three-year study allowed the completion of thirty-nine projects and the testing of two different platform designs. The feedback from students demonstrated the value of a well-structured platform composed of different management models for each project phase. Furthermore, 67 per cent of the STEs involved on the platform acknowledged the value of such collaborative projects. However, the collaborations did not improve top management support, and projects tended to stagnate because of various organisational factors. A second study, using a mixed-methods research design, was performed to explore the relations amongst the organisational factors acting as enablers and barriers to the digitalisation of STEs. The objective was to improve understanding of TSEs' situation and devise a proposition to enhance top management support. An academic contribution of this study was the design and application of a conceptual framework combining organisational factors from the literature on dynamic capabilities, organisational inertia, and intellectual capital. The combination of the qualitative observations and quantitative results highlighted the importance of the sensing and leadership capabilities for STE directors. They also revealed the mediator effect of the relational capability on the development of these latter. Therefore, this thesis makes important contributions to the literature on open innovation by defining a new field for leading knowledge management experiments. It also contributes to develop a comprehensive overview of the organisational factors affecting STEs' adoption. A further major contribution is the potential value of the digital platform to innovate the services of practitioners, such as governmental agencies and consultants, that support STEs on their digital transformation journey. In conclusion, this research is valuable in opening the discussion about potential innovations that might reshape the relationship academia-business.
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Related concepts (17)
Education is the transmission of knowledge, skills, and character traits. There are many debates about its precise definition, for example, about which aims it tries to achieve. A further issue is whe
A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students under the direction of teachers. Most countries have systems of form
A teacher, also called a schoolteacher or formally an educator, is a person who helps students to acquire knowledge, competence, or virtue, via the practice of teaching. Informally the role of teach
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