**Are you an EPFL student looking for a semester project?**

Work with us on data science and visualisation projects, and deploy your project as an app on top of GraphSearch.

Concept# Standard temperature and pressure

Summary

Standard temperature and pressure (STP) are various standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data. The most used standards are those of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), although these are not universally accepted standards. Other organizations have established a variety of alternative definitions for their standard reference conditions.
In industry and commerce, the standard conditions for temperature and pressure are often necessary to define the standard reference conditions to express the volumes of gases and liquids and related quantities such as the rate of volumetric flow (the volumes of gases vary significantly with temperature and pressure): standard cubic meters per second (Sm3/s), and normal cubic meters per second (Nm3/s).
However, many technical publications (books, journals, advertisements for equipment and machinery) simply state "standard conditions" without specifying them; often substituting the term with older "normal conditions", or "NC". In special cases this can lead to confusion and errors. Good practice always incorporates the reference conditions of temperature and pressure. If not stated, some room environment conditions are supposed, close to 1 atm pressure, 293 K (20 °C), and 0% humidity.
In chemistry, IUPAC changed its definition of standard temperature and pressure in 1982:
Until 1982, STP was defined as a temperature of 273.15 K (0 °C, 32 °F) and an absolute pressure of exactly 1 atm (101.325 kPa).
Since 1982, STP has been defined as a temperature of 273.15 K (0 °C, 32 °F) and an absolute pressure of exactly 105 Pa (100 kPa, 1 bar).
NIST uses a temperature of 20 °C (293.15 K, 68 °F) and an absolute pressure of 1 atm (14.696 psi, 101.325 kPa). This standard is also called normal temperature and pressure (abbreviated as NTP). However, a common temperature and pressure in use by NIST for thermodynamic experiments is 298.

This page is automatically generated and may contain information that is not correct, complete, up-to-date, or relevant to your search query. The same applies to every other page on this website. Please make sure to verify the information with EPFL's official sources.

Related publications (252)

Related people (37)

Related concepts (16)

Related courses (28)

Related units (6)

Related lectures (43)

Temperature

Temperature is a physical quantity that expresses quantitatively the perceptions of hotness and coldness. Temperature is measured with a thermometer. Thermometers are calibrated in various temperature scales that historically have relied on various reference points and thermometric substances for definition. The most common scales are the Celsius scale with the unit symbol °C (formerly called centigrade), the Fahrenheit scale (°F), and the Kelvin scale (K), the latter being used predominantly for scientific purposes.

Ideal gas law

The ideal gas law, also called the general gas equation, is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas. It is a good approximation of the behavior of many gases under many conditions, although it has several limitations. It was first stated by Benoît Paul Émile Clapeyron in 1834 as a combination of the empirical Boyle's law, Charles's law, Avogadro's law, and Gay-Lussac's law. The ideal gas law is often written in an empirical form: where , and are the pressure, volume and temperature respectively; is the amount of substance; and is the ideal gas constant.

Kelvin

The 'kelvin', symbol K, is a unit of measurement for temperature. The Kelvin scale is an absolute scale, which is defined such that 0 K is absolute zero and a change of thermodynamic temperature T by 1 kelvin corresponds to a change of thermal energy kT by 1.380649e−23J. The Boltzmann constant was exactly defined in the 2019 redefinition of the SI base units such that the triple point of water is 273.16K. The kelvin is the base unit of temperature in the International System of Units (SI), used alongside its prefixed forms.

MSE-101(a): Materials:from chemistry to properties

Ce cours permet l'acquisition des notions essentielles relatives à la structure de la matière, aux équilibres et à la réactivité chimique en liaison avec les propriétés mécaniques, thermiques, électri

MSE-209: Transfer phenomena in materials science

Ce cours porte sur le transfert de la chaleur par conduction, convection et rayonnement, ainsi que sur la diffusion à l'état solide. D'après les règles phénoménologiques (Equations de Fourrier et Fick

ME-251: Thermodynamics and energetics I

The course introduces the basic concepts of thermodynamics and heat transfer, and thermodynamic properties of matter and their calculation. The students will master the concepts of heat, mass, and mom

Plasma Distribution Functions

Covers the concept of moments of the distribution function in plasma physics and their relation to fluid dynamics.

Introduction to Partial Differential Equations

Covers the basics of Partial Differential Equations, focusing on heat transfer modeling and numerical solution methods.

Chemistry: Atomic Structure and Thermodynamics

Covers atomic structure, thermodynamics, material properties, and ideal gas law.

, , ,

At room temperature, mechanical motion driven by the quantum backaction of light has been observed only in pioneering experiments in which an optical restoring force controls the oscillator stiffness1,2. For solid-state mechanical resonators in which oscil ...

,

Humidity is a critical environmental factor in various applications, and its temperature dependence must be considered when developing thermo-hygrometer fiber sensors. The optical fibers that constitute the sensor must have a temperature reference, which s ...

2023The activation of prismatic slip in Mg and its alloys can be beneficial for deformation and forming. Experiments show that addition of Zn and Al solutes have a softening effect at/below room temperature, attributed to solutes facilitating basal-prism-basal ...

2024