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Concept# Convergence tests

Summary

In mathematics, convergence tests are methods of testing for the convergence, conditional convergence, absolute convergence, interval of convergence or divergence of an infinite series .
If the limit of the summand is undefined or nonzero, that is , then the series must diverge. In this sense, the partial sums are Cauchy only if this limit exists and is equal to zero. The test is inconclusive if the limit of the summand is zero. This is also known as the nth-term test, test for divergence, or the divergence test.
This is also known as d'Alembert's criterion.
Suppose that there exists such that
If r < 1, then the series is absolutely convergent. If r > 1, then the series diverges. If r = 1, the ratio test is inconclusive, and the series may converge or diverge.
This is also known as the nth root test or Cauchy's criterion.
Let
where denotes the limit superior (possibly ; if the limit exists it is the same value).
If r < 1, then the series converges absolutely. If r > 1, then the series diverges. If r = 1, the root test is inconclusive, and the series may converge or diverge.
The root test is stronger than the ratio test: whenever the ratio test determines the convergence or divergence of an infinite series, the root test does too, but not conversely.
The series can be compared to an integral to establish convergence or divergence. Let be a non-negative and monotonically decreasing function such that . If
then the series converges. But if the integral diverges, then the series does so as well.
In other words, the series converges if and only if the integral converges.
A commonly-used corollary of the integral test is the p-series test. Let . Then converges if .
The case of yields the harmonic series, which diverges. The case of is the Basel problem and the series converges to . In general, for , the series is equal to the Riemann zeta function applied to , that is .
If the series is an absolutely convergent series and for sufficiently large n , then the series converges absolutely.

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Ontological neighbourhood

Root test

In mathematics, the root test is a criterion for the convergence (a convergence test) of an infinite series. It depends on the quantity where are the terms of the series, and states that the series converges absolutely if this quantity is less than one, but diverges if it is greater than one. It is particularly useful in connection with power series. The root test was developed first by Augustin-Louis Cauchy who published it in his textbook Cours d'analyse (1821). Thus, it is sometimes known as the Cauchy root test or Cauchy's radical test.

Ratio test

In mathematics, the ratio test is a test (or "criterion") for the convergence of a series where each term is a real or complex number and an is nonzero when n is large. The test was first published by Jean le Rond d'Alembert and is sometimes known as d'Alembert's ratio test or as the Cauchy ratio test. The usual form of the test makes use of the limit The ratio test states that: if L < 1 then the series converges absolutely; if L > 1 then the series diverges; if L = 1 or the limit fails to exist, then the test is inconclusive, because there exist both convergent and divergent series that satisfy this case.

Integral test for convergence

In mathematics, the integral test for convergence is a method used to test infinite series of monotonous terms for convergence. It was developed by Colin Maclaurin and Augustin-Louis Cauchy and is sometimes known as the Maclaurin–Cauchy test. Consider an integer N and a function f defined on the unbounded interval , on which it is monotone decreasing. Then the infinite series converges to a real number if and only if the improper integral is finite. In particular, if the integral diverges, then the series diverges as well.

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