Concept

Diffusion equation

Summary
The diffusion equation is a parabolic partial differential equation. In physics, it describes the macroscopic behavior of many micro-particles in Brownian motion, resulting from the random movements and collisions of the particles (see Fick's laws of diffusion). In mathematics, it is related to Markov processes, such as random walks, and applied in many other fields, such as materials science, information theory, and biophysics. The diffusion equation is a special case of the convection–diffusion equation, when bulk velocity is zero. It is equivalent to the heat equation under some circumstances. Statement The equation is usually written as: where ϕ(r, t) is the density of the diffusing material at location r and time t and D(ϕ, r) is the collective diffusion coefficient for density ϕ at location r; and ∇ represents the vector differential operator del. If the diffusion coefficient depends on the density then the equation is nonlinear, otherwis
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