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Publication# Some applications of symmetries in differential geometry and dynamical systems

Abstract

This thesis deals with applications of Lie symmetries in differential geometry and dynamical systems. The first chapter of the thesis studies the singular reduction of symmetries of cosphere bundles, the conservation properties of contact systems and their reduction. We generalise the results of [15] to the singular case making a complete topological and geometrical analysis of the reduced space. Applying the general theory of contact reduction developed by Lerman and Willett in [33] and [57], one obtains contact stratified spaces that lose all information of the internal structure of the cosphere bundle. Based on the cotangent bundle reduction theorems, both in the regular and singular case, as well as regular cosphere bundle reduction, one expects additional bundle-like structure for the contact strata. The cosphere bundle projection to the base manifold descends to a continuous surjective map from the reduced space at zero to the orbit quotient of the configuration space, but it fails to be a morphism of stratified spaces if we endow the reduced space with its contact stratification and the base space with the customary orbit type stratification defined by the Lie group action. In this chapter we introduce a new stratification of the contact quotient at zero, called the C-L stratification (standing for the coisotropic or Legendrian nature of its pieces) which solves the above mentioned two problems. Its main features are the following. First, it is compatible with the contact stratification of the quotient and the orbit type stratification of the configuration orbit space. It is also finer than the contact stratification. Second, the natural projection of the C-L stratified quotient space to its base space, stratified by orbit types, is a morphism of stratified spaces. Third, each C-L stratum is a bundle over an orbit type stratum of the base and it can be seen as a union of C-L pieces, one of them being open and dense in its corresponding contact stratum and contactomorphic to a cosphere bundle. The other strata are coisotropic or Legendrian submanifolds in the contact components that contain them. We also describe the relation between contact vector fields and the time dependent Hamilton-Jacobi equation. The reduction of contact systems and time dependent Hamiltonians is mentioned. In the second chapter we study geometric properties of Sasakian and Kähler quotients. We construct a reduction procedure for symplectic and Kähler manifolds using the ray preimages of the momentum map. More precisely, instead of taking as in point reduction the preimage of a momentum value μ, we take the preimage of ℝ+μ, the positive ray of μ. We have two reasons to develop this construction. One is geometric: non zero Kähler point reduction is not always well defined. The problem is that the complex structure may not leave invariant the horizontal distribution of the Riemannian submersion πμ : J-1(μ) → Mμ. The solution proposed in the literature is correct only in the case of totally isotropic momentum (i.e. Gμ = G). The other reason is that it provides invariant submanifolds for conformal Hamiltonian systems. They are usually non-autonomous mechanical systems with friction whose integral curves preserve, in the case of symmetries, the ray pre-images of the momentum map. We extend the class of conformal Hamiltonian systems already studied and complete the existing Lie Poisson reduction with the general ray one. As examples of symplectic (Kähler) and contact (Sasakian) ray reductions we treat the case of cotangent and cosphere bundles and we show that they are universal for ray reductions. Using techniques of A. Futaki, we prove that, under appropriate hypothesis, ray quotients of Kähler-Einstein or Sasaki-Einstein manifolds remain Kähler or Sasaki-Einstein. Note that it suffices to prove the Kähler case and the compatibility of ray reduction with the Boothby-Wang fibration. In the last chapter, we prove a stratification theorem for proper groupoids. First we find an equivalent way of describing the same result for a proper Lie group action, way which uses the theory of foliations and can be adapted to the language of Lie groupoids. We treat separately the case of free and proper groupoids. The orbit foliation of a proper Lie groupoid is a singular Riemannian foliation and we show this explicitly.

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Differential geometry

Differential geometry is a mathematical discipline that studies the geometry of smooth shapes and smooth spaces, otherwise known as smooth manifolds. It uses the techniques of differential calculus

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Geometric analysis is a mathematical discipline where tools from differential equations, especially elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs), are used to establish new results in differential

Contact geometry

In mathematics, contact geometry is the study of a geometric structure on smooth manifolds given by a hyperplane distribution in the tangent bundle satisfying a condition called 'complete non-integ

In this paper, the differential geometry of the novel hierarchical Tucker format for tensors is derived. The set HT,k of tensors with fixed tree T and hierarchical rank k is shown to be a smooth quotient manifold, namely the set of orbits of a Lie group action corresponding to the non-unique basis representation of these hierarchical tensors. Explicit characterizations of the quotient manifold, its tangent space and the tangent space of HT,k are derived, suitable for high-dimensional problems. The usefulness of a complete geometric description is demonstrated by two typical applications. First, new convergence results for the nonlinear Gauss-Seidel method on HT, k are given. Notably and in contrast to earlier works on this subject, the task of minimizing the Rayleigh quotient is also addressed. Second, evolution equations for dynamic tensor approximation are formulated in terms of an explicit projection operator onto the tangent space of HT,k. In addition, a numerical comparison is made between this dynamical approach and the standard one based on truncated singular value decompositions. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

2013Every principal G-bundle over X is classified up to equivalence by a homotopy class X -> BG, where BG is the classifying space of G. On the other hand, for every nice topological space X Milnor constructed a strict model of its loop space (Omega) over tildeX, that is a group. Moreover, the morphisms of topological groups (Omega) over tildeX -> G generate all the G-bundles over X up to equivalence. In this paper, we show that the relation between Milnor's loop space and the classifying space functor is, in a precise sense, an adjoint pair between based spaces and topological groups in a homotopical context. This proof leads to a classification of principal bundles over a fixed space, that is dual to the classification of bundles with a fixed group. Such a result clarifies the deep relation that exists between the theory of bundles, the classifying space construction and the loop space, which are very important in topological K-theory, group cohomology, and homotopy theory.

The mathematical facet of modern crystallography is essentially based on analytical geometry, linear algebra as well as group theory. This study endeavours to approach the geometry and symmetry of crystals using the tools furnished by differential geometry and the theory of Lie groups. These two branches of mathematics being little known to crystallographers, the pertinent definitions such as differentiable manifold, tangent space or metric tensor or even isometries on a manifold together with some important results are given first. The example of euclidean space, taken as riemannian manifold, is treated, in order to show that the affine aspect of this space is not at all an axiom but the consequence of the euclidean nature of the manifold. Attention is then directed to a particular subgroup of the group of euclidean isometries, namely that of translations. This has the property of a Lie group and it turns out that the action of its elements, as well as those of its Lie algebra, plays an important role in generating a lattice on a manifold and in its tangent space, too. In particular, it is pointed out that one and only one finite and free module of the Lie algebra of the group of translations can generate both, modulated and non-modulated lattices. This last classification therefore appears continuous rather than black and white and is entirely determined by the parametrisation considered. Since a lattice in a tangent space has the properties of a vector space, it always possesses the structure of a finite, free module, which shows that the assignment of aperiodicity to modulated structures is quite subjective, even unmotivated. Thanks to the concept of representation of a lattice or a crystal in a tangent space, novel definitions of the notions of symmetry operation of a space group and point symmetry operation, as well as symmetry element and intrinsic translation arise; they altogether naturally blend into the framework of differential geometry. In order to conveniently pass from one representation of a crystal in one tangent space to another or to the structure on a manifold, an equivalence relation on the tangent bundle of the manifold is introduced. This relation furthermore allows to extend the concept of symmetry operation to the tangent bundle; this extension furnishes, particularly in the euclidean case, a very practical way of representing symmetry operations of space groups completely devoid of any dependence on an origin, or, in other words, in which each and every point may be considered the origin. The investigation of the group of translations having being completed, the study of the linear parts of the isometries comes naturally. Based on the fact that the set of linear parts possesses the structure of a Lie group, several results are proven in a rigorous manner, such as the fact that a rotation angle of π/3 is incompatible with a three-dimensional cubic lattice. Procedures for determining different crystal systems in function of the type of rotation are laid out by way of the study of orthogonal matrices and their relation to the matrix associated with the type of system. Finally, the description of a crystal by its diffraction patterns is taken on. It is shown that the general aspect of such a pattern is directly linked to the action of that free and finite module of the Lie algebra of translations which generates a lattice on a manifold. In the case of modulated crystals, it is demonstrated that the appearance of supplementary spots is caused by the geometry, i.e. by the parametrisation of the manifold in which the crystal exists and not by the action of the module in the Lie algebra. Thus, there exists a neat separation: the geometrical aspect on the one hand, and the action of the group on the other. As the last topic, other ways of interpreting the diffraction pattern of a modulated structure are laid out in order to argue that mere experimental data do not warrant the uniqueness of a model. The goal of this study is by no means an attempt at overthrowing existing structural models such as the superspace-formalism or at revolutionising the methods for determining structures, but is rather aimed at sustaining that the definition of certain notions becomes thoroughly natural within the appropriate mathematical framework, and, that the term aperiodicity assigned to modulated structures no longer has a true meaning.