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Concept# Logic family

Summary

In computer engineering, a logic family is one of two related concepts:
A logic family of monolithic digital integrated circuit devices is a group of electronic logic gates constructed using one of several different designs, usually with compatible logic levels and power supply characteristics within a family. Many logic families were produced as individual components, each containing one or a few related basic logical functions, which could be used as "building-blocks" to create systems or as so-called "glue" to interconnect more complex integrated circuits.
A logic family may also be a set of techniques used to implement logic within VLSI integrated circuits such as central processors, memories, or other complex functions. Some such logic families use static techniques to minimize design complexity. Other such logic families, such as domino logic, use clocked dynamic techniques to minimize size, power consumption and delay.
Before the widespread use of integrated circuits, various solid-state and vacuum-tube logic systems were used but these were never as standardized and interoperable as the integrated-circuit devices. The most common logic family in modern semiconductor devices is metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) logic, due to low power consumption, small transistor sizes, and high transistor density.
The list of packaged building-block logic families can be divided into categories, listed here in roughly chronological order of introduction, along with their usual abbreviations:
Resistor–transistor logic (RTL)
Direct-coupled transistor logic (DCTL)
Direct-coupled unipolar transistor logic (DCUTL)
Resistor–capacitor–transistor logic (RCTL)
Emitter-coupled logic (ECL)
Positive emitter-coupled logic (PECL)
Low-voltage PECL (LVPECL)
Complementary transistor micrologic (CTuL)
Diode–transistor logic (DTL)
Complemented transistor diode logic (CTDL)
High-threshold logic (HTL)
Transistor–transistor logic (TTL)
Metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) logic
P-type MOS (PMOS) logic
N-type MOS (NMOS) logic
Depletion-load NMOS logic
High-density NMOS (HMOS)
Complementary MOS (CMOS) logic
Bipolar MOS (BiMOS) logic
Bipolar CMOS (BiCMOS)
Integrated injection logic (I2L)
Gunning transceiver logic (GTL)
The families (RTL, DTL, and ECL) were derived from the logic circuits used in early computers, originally implemented using discrete components.

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Emitter-coupled logic

In electronics, emitter-coupled logic (ECL) is a high-speed integrated circuit bipolar transistor logic family. ECL uses an overdriven bipolar junction transistor (BJT) differential amplifier with single-ended input and limited emitter current to avoid the saturated (fully on) region of operation and its slow turn-off behavior. As the current is steered between two legs of an emitter-coupled pair, ECL is sometimes called current-steering logic (CSL), current-mode logic (CML) or current-switch emitter-follower (CSEF) logic.

NAND gate

In digital electronics, a NAND gate (NOT-AND) is a logic gate which produces an output which is false only if all its inputs are true; thus its output is complement to that of an AND gate. A LOW (0) output results only if all the inputs to the gate are HIGH (1); if any input is LOW (0), a HIGH (1) output results. A NAND gate is made using transistors and junction diodes. By De Morgan's laws, a two-input NAND gate's logic may be expressed as =+, making a NAND gate equivalent to inverters followed by an OR gate.

7400-series integrated circuits

The 7400 series is a popular logic family of transistor–transistor logic (TTL) integrated circuits (ICs). In 1964, Texas Instruments introduced the SN5400 series of logic chips, in a ceramic semiconductor package. A low-cost plastic package SN7400 series was introduced in 1966 which quickly gained over 50% of the logic chip market, and eventually becoming de facto standardized electronic components. Over the decades, many generations of pin-compatible descendant families evolved to include support for low power CMOS technology, lower supply voltages, and surface mount packages.

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