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Concept# Geometry

Summary

Geometry (; ) is a branch of mathematics concerned with properties of space such as the distance, shape, size, and relative position of figures. Geometry is, along with arithmetic, one of the oldest branches of mathematics. A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is called a geometer. Until the 19th century, geometry was almost exclusively devoted to Euclidean geometry, which includes the notions of point, line, plane, distance, angle, surface, and curve, as fundamental concepts.
Originally developed to model the physical world, geometry has applications in almost all sciences, and also in art, architecture, and other activities that are related to graphics. Geometry also has applications in areas of mathematics that are apparently unrelated. For example, methods of algebraic geometry are fundamental in Wiles's proof of Fermat's Last Theorem, a problem that was stated in terms of elementary arithmetic, and remained unsolved for several centuries.
During the 19th century se

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Removing geometrical details from a complex domain is a classical operation in computer aided design for simulation and manufacturing. This procedure simplifies the meshing process, and it enables faster simulations with less memory requirements. However, depending on the partial differential equation that one wants to solve in the geometrical model of interest, removing some important geometrical features may greatly impact the solution accuracy. For instance, in solid mechanics simulations, such features can be holes or fillets near stress concentration regions. Unfortunately, the effect of geometrical simplification on the accuracy of the problem solution is often neglected, because its analysis is a time-consuming task that is often performed manually, based on the expertise of engineers. It is therefore important to have a better understanding of the effect of geometrical model simplification, also called defeaturing, to improve our control on the simulation accuracy along the design and analysis phase.In this thesis, we formalize the process of defeaturing, and we analyze its impact on the accuracy of solutions of some partial differential problems. To achieve this goal, we first precisely define the error between the problem solution defined in the exact geometry, and the one defined in the simplified geometry. Then, we introduce an a posteriori estimator of the energy norm of this error. This allows us to reliably and efficiently control the error coming from the addition or the removal of geometrical features. We subsequently consider a finite element approximation of the defeatured problem, and the induced numerical error is integrated to the proposed defeaturing error estimator. In particular, we address the special case of isogeometric analysis based on (truncated) hierarchical B-splines, in possibly trimmed and multipatch geometries. In this framework, we derive a reliable a posteriori estimator of the overall error, i.e., of the error between the exact solution defined in the exact geometry, and the numerical solution defined in the defeatured geometry.We then propose a two-fold adaptive strategy for analysis-aware defeaturing, which starts by considering a coarse mesh on a fully-defeatured computational domain. On the one hand, the algorithm performs classical finite element mesh refinements in a (partially) defeatured geometry. On the other hand, the strategy also allows for geometrical refinement. That is, at each iteration, the algorithm is able to choose which missing geometrical features should be added to the simplified geometrical model, in order to obtain a more accurate solution.Throughout the thesis, we validate the presented theory, the properties of the aforementioned estimators and the proposed adaptive strategies, thanks to an extensive set of numerical experiments.

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Noémie Laure Gwendoline Jaquier

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We initially consider the problem of transferring skills to a robot and propose a probabilistic framework to learn symmetric positive definite (SPD) matrices from demonstrations. Given a learned reference trajectory in the form of SPD matrices, the goal of the robot is to reproduce the task by tracking this sequence using appropriate controllers. This challenge is tackled in the second part of this thesis. We focus on a specific application and propose a complete geometry-aware framework to learn, control and transfer posture-dependent task requirements from humans to robots via manipulability profiles. The third part of this thesis focuses on refining the skills learned by the robot and on adapting them to new situations by introducing a geometry-aware Bayesian optimization framework. Overall, this thesis proves that geometry-awareness is crucial for successfully learning, controlling and refining non-Euclidean parameters in addition to providing a proper mathematical treatment of the different problems. Finally, the last part of this work shows that domain knowledge can be introduced not only through geometry-awareness, but also through structure-awareness, which may be considered either as prior models or as intrinsically present in the data. With its final part, this thesis emphasizes that domain knowledge, that can be introduced into robot learning algorithms through various means, may be significant for providing robots with close-to-humans abilities.

To any compact Riemann surface of genus g one may assign a principally polarized abelian variety (PPAV) of dimension g, the Jacobian of the Riemann surface. The Jacobian is a complex torus and we call a Gram matrix of the lattice of a Jacobian a period Gram matrix. The aim of this thesis is to contribute to the Schottky problem, which is to discern the Jacobians among the PPAVs. Buser and Sarnak approached this problem by means of a geometric invariant, the first successive minimum. They showed that the square of the first successive minimum, the squared norm of the shortest non-zero vector, in the lattice of a Jacobian of a Riemann surface of genus g is bounded from above by log(4g), whereas it can be of order g for the lattice of a PPAV of dimension g. The main goal of this work was to improve this result and to get insight into the connection between the geometry of a compact Riemann surface that is given in hyperbolic geometric terms, and the geometry of its Jacobian. We show the following general findings: For a hyperelliptic surface the first successive minimum is bounded from above by a universal constant. The square of the second successive minimum of the Jacobian of a Riemann surface of genus g is equally of order log(g). We provide refined upper bounds on the consecutive successive minima if the surface contains several disjoint small simple closed geodesics and a lower bound for the norm of certain lattice vectors of the Jacobian, if the surface contains small non-separating simple closed geodesics. If the concrete geometry of the Riemann surface is known, more precise statements can be made. In this case we obtain theoretical and practical estimates on all entries of the period Gram matrix. Here we establish upper and lower bounds based on the geometry of the cut locus of simple closed geodesics and also on the geometry of Q-pieces. In addition the following two results have been obtained: First, an improved lower bound for the maximum value of the norm of the shortest non-zero lattice vector among all PPAVs in even dimensions. This follows from an averaging method from the geometry of numbers applied to a family of symmetric PPAVs. Second, a new proof for a lower bound on the number of homotopically distinct geodesic loops, whose length is smaller than a fixed constant. This lower bound applies not only to geodesic loops on Riemann surfaces, but on arbitrary manifolds of non-positive curvature.