**Are you an EPFL student looking for a semester project?**

Work with us on data science and visualisation projects, and deploy your project as an app on top of Graph Search.

Concept# Free group

Summary

In mathematics, the free group FS over a given set S consists of all words that can be built from members of S, considering two words to be different unless their equality follows from the group axioms (e.g. st = suu−1t, but s ≠ t−1 for s,t,u ∈ S). The members of S are called generators of FS, and the number of generators is the rank of the free group.
An arbitrary group G is called free if it is isomorphic to FS for some subset S of G, that is, if there is a subset S of G such that every element of G can be written in exactly one way as a product of finitely many elements of S and their inverses (disregarding trivial variations such as st = suu−1t).
A related but different notion is a free abelian group; both notions are particular instances of a free object from universal algebra. As such, free groups are defined by their universal property.
Free groups first arose in the study of hyperbolic geometry, as examples of Fuchsian groups (discrete groups acting by isometries on the hyperbolic plane). In an 1882 paper, Walther von Dyck pointed out that these groups have the simplest possible presentations. The algebraic study of free groups was initiated by Jakob Nielsen in 1924, who gave them their name and established many of their basic properties. Max Dehn realized the connection with topology, and obtained the first proof of the full Nielsen–Schreier theorem. Otto Schreier published an algebraic proof of this result in 1927, and Kurt Reidemeister included a comprehensive treatment of free groups in his 1932 book on combinatorial topology. Later on in the 1930s, Wilhelm Magnus discovered the connection between the lower central series of free groups and free Lie algebras.
The group (Z,+) of integers is free of rank 1; a generating set is S = {1}. The integers are also a free abelian group, although all free groups of rank are non-abelian. A free group on a two-element set S occurs in the proof of the Banach–Tarski paradox and is described there.

Official source

This page is automatically generated and may contain information that is not correct, complete, up-to-date, or relevant to your search query. The same applies to every other page on this website. Please make sure to verify the information with EPFL's official sources.

Related publications (24)

Related people (2)

Related units (1)

Related concepts (23)

Related courses (5)

Related lectures (33)

In mathematics, a presentation is one method of specifying a group. A presentation of a group G comprises a set S of generators—so that every element of the group can be written as a product of powers of some of these generators—and a set R of relations among those generators. We then say G has presentation Informally, G has the above presentation if it is the "freest group" generated by S subject only to the relations R. Formally, the group G is said to have the above presentation if it is isomorphic to the quotient of a free group on S by the normal subgroup generated by the relations R.

In mathematics, especially in and homotopy theory, a groupoid (less often Brandt groupoid or virtual group) generalises the notion of group in several equivalent ways. A groupoid can be seen as a: Group with a partial function replacing the binary operation; in which every morphism is invertible. A category of this sort can be viewed as augmented with a unary operation on the morphisms, called inverse by analogy with group theory. A groupoid where there is only one object is a usual group.

In mathematics, the idea of a free object is one of the basic concepts of abstract algebra. Informally, a free object over a set A can be thought of as being a "generic" algebraic structure over A: the only equations that hold between elements of the free object are those that follow from the defining axioms of the algebraic structure. Examples include free groups, tensor algebras, or free lattices. The concept is a part of universal algebra, in the sense that it relates to all types of algebraic structure (with finitary operations).

Après une introduction à la théorie des catégories, nous appliquerons la théorie générale au cas particulier des groupes, ce qui nous permettra de bien mettre en perspective des notions telles que quo

On étudie des notions de topologie générale: unions et quotients d'espaces topologiques; on approfondit les notions de revêtements et de groupe fondamental,et d'attachements de cellules et on démontre

This course is an introduction to the theory of Riemann surfaces. Riemann surfaces naturally appear is mathematics in many different ways: as a result of analytic continuation, as quotients of complex

Delves into group actions, coverings, fundamental groups, and homomorphisms in topological spaces.

Covers the bar construction method, homology groups, classifying space, and the Hopf formula.

Introduces the concept of homology groups and focuses on a lemma about free abelian groups.

Ali H. Sayed, Stefan Vlaski, Elsa Rizk

We study the privatization of distributed learning and optimization strategies. We focus on differential privacy schemes and study their effect on performance. We show that the popular additive random perturbation scheme degrades performance because it is ...

,

Extended tonality is a central system that characterizes the music from the 19th up to the 21st century, including styles like popular music, film music or Jazz. Developing from classical major-minor tonality, the harmonic language of extended tonality for ...

2021,

Given a group Gamma, we establish a connection between the unitarisability of its uniformly bounded representations and the asymptotic behaviour of the isoperimetric constants of Cayley graphs of Gamma for increasingly large generating sets. The connection ...