Concept

Molécule d'eau

Résumé
La molécule d’eau, de formule , est le constituant essentiel de l’eau pure. Celle-ci contient également des ions résultant de l’autoprotolyse de l’eau selon l’équation d'équilibre : H + OH (ou 2 HO + OH). L’eau pure n’est pas présente dans la nature et doit être obtenue par des processus physiques. Cette molécule a des propriétés complexes à cause de sa polarisation (voir la section Nature dipolaire). L’eau à pression ambiante (environ un bar) est gazeuse au-dessus de , solide en dessous de et liquide entre les deux. C’est là une particularité essentielle ; les autres composés proches ou apparentés (sulfure d’hydrogène, ammoniac et méthane) sont tous gazeux même à des températures bien plus basses. Physique Propriétés générales Variation de la pression atmosphérique avec l'altitude L’état solide de l’eau est la glace ; l’état gazeux est la vapeur d'eau. L’état de l’eau dépend des conditions de pression P et de température T. Il existe une situation un
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Publications associées (29)

Chargement

Chargement

Order and dynamics in Kagome like compound Cu2OSO4 and other quantum magnets

Virgile Yves Favre

This thesis presents results of studies of novel compounds modeling complex fundamental physics phenomena. Cu2OSO4 is a copper based magnetic Mott Insulator system, where spin half magnetic moments form a new type of lattice. These intrinsically quantum pins are exhibiting atypical magnetic order and spin dynamics. The recent success in the growth of large single crystals of Cu2OSO4 enabled to perform measurements probing its static and fluctuating properties. The peculiarity of this sample is that its atoms are forming layers, with a geometry close to the intensively studied Kagomé lattice, but with a third of its spins replaced by dimers. This quantum magnetism system has been probed in its bulk, by the means of heat capacity and DC-susceptibility measurements, revealing a transition to a magnetically long range ordered state upon cooling, the details of which are revealed by neutron scattering. Single crystal inelastic neutron scattering shed light on the spin-dynamics in the system, with clear spin waves appearing as fluctuations around the peculiar ground state of the system: a 120 degrees spin configuration where the magnetic moment of the spin-dimer causes the sample to be globally ferrimagnetic. The presented results indicate that Cu2OSO4 represents a new type of model lattice with frustrated interactions where interplay between magnetic order, thermal and quantum fluctuations can be explored. The magnetic excitations of the compound can be modeled by a yet-to-be-understood internal effective mean-field that no simple magnetic coupling seems to reproduce. K2Ni2(SO4)3 is another compound that allows for the existence of non-trivial topological phases. This thesis presents results of the study of the unusual magnetic behavior of K2Ni2(SO4)3. No clear sign of well-established magnetic long range order has been observed down to dilution temperatures. Neutron scattering reveals the details of the competition between frustration and fluctuations that prevent order from settling in. Low temperature spin excitations take the form of a continuum at 500 mK, but also of broad, energy independent continua at higher temperatures. Bulk and neutron scattering measurements are put in perspective and linked together with a view to building up a better understanding of how quantum spin liquids can be stabilized in general, and in particular in this model compound. Finally, the last contribution of this thesis to the field of condensed matter physics regards the establishment of a state-of-the-art technique to fit heat capacity and unit cell volume of samples to try and make the extraction of magnetic information from specific heat measurements more robust. This newly-developed technique consists in modeling lattice contributions with better accuracy by using data from multiple experimentally accessible quantities to consolidate the fitting scheme. This method has been cautiously applied to several compounds at the forefront of research in experimental physics.
EPFL2021
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Personnes associées (1)
Concepts associés (256)
Eau
L'eau est une substance chimique constituée de molécules . Ce composé, très stable, mais aussi très réactif, est un excellent solvant à l'état liquide. Dans de nombreux contextes, le terme eau est e
Ammoniac
L'ammoniac est un composé chimique de formule (du groupe générique des nitrures d'hydrogène). Dans les conditions normales de température et de pression, c'est un gaz noté gaz. Il est incolore et
Acide sulfurique
vignette|Effet de l'acide sulfurique sur une serviette en coton. vignette|Cloques emplies de lymphe résultant d'une brûlure causée par exposition de la peau à de l'acide sulfurique (archives médicale
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Cours associés (61)
PHYS-441: Statistical physics of biomacromolecules
Introduction to the application of the notions and methods of theoretical physics to problems in biology.
ENV-200: Environmental chemistry
This course provides students with an overview over the basics of environmental chemistry. This includes the chemistry of natural systems, as well as the fate of anthropogenic chemicals in natural systems. It enables students to apply general chemical concepts to natural systems.
CH-424: Supramolecular chemistry
The course provides an introduction to supramolecular chemistry. In addition, current trends are discussed using recent publications in this area.
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